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Using Emojis: Self-Presentation and Different Meaning Creation Approaches

Year 2018, Volume , Issue 29, 279 - 300, 25.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.500954

Abstract

Nowadays visuality is increasing. One of the remarkable developments in 2015 was that the emoji😂’, the smiley with tears of happiness- was chosen the “word of the year” although it was just a pictogram, not even a word. This situation clearly shows that there is an increasing demand for new visual forms of writing.Emojis allow people from different language and culture backgrounds to communicate more effectively and initiate interactions when it is needed. It is believed that emoji codes might function like a universal language that is likely to solve potential misunderstandings experienced in intercultural communication. In one way it might be considered a sort of development in technology, or the other it is just a temporary crazy novelty brought by the Internet. This study mainly aims to explain the dimensions and importance of the emojis’ usage. This qualitative study uses semi-structured in-depth interview technique. People tend to employ a sort of expressive use through “emotion laborer” emojis while presenting themselves. Emojis are traces of the transition from instrumentalism to expressionism.


References

  • Alshenqeeti, H. (2016). Are Emojis Creating a New or Old Visual Language for New Generations? A Socio-semiotic Study, Advances in Language and Literary Studies I. Vol. 7 No. 6. Australia: Australian International Academic Centre. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.6p.56
  • Balta, Ö.Ç. ve Horzum, M.B. (2008). Web Tabanlı Öğretim Ortamındaki Öğrencilerin Internet Bağımlılığını Etkileyen Faktörler. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 41, 185-203.
  • Barbieri, F., Kruszewski, G., Ronzano, F. & Saggion, H. (2016). How cosmopolitan are emoji? In: MM '16 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on Multimedia Conference, 531–535. New York: ACM New York.
  • Bayad, A. (2016). Erving Goffman’ın Benlik Kavramı ve İnsan Doğası Varsayımı. Psikoloji Çalışmaları Dergisi, 36-1 65-80.
  • Bayraktar, F. ve Gün, Z. (2007). Incidence and Correlates of Internet Usage Among Adolescents in North Cyprus. Cyberpsychology & Behavior,10, 191-197.
  • Cao, F. and Su, L. (2007). Internet Addiction Among Chinese Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychological Features. Child Care Health Development, 33(3), 275-81.
  • Danesi, M. (2017). The semiotics of emoji: the rise of visual language in the age of the internet. London: Bluoomsbury Publishing.
  • Damasio, A. (2005). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. London: Penguin.
  • Dresner, E. & Herring, S. C. (2010). Functions of the nonverbal CMC: Emoticons and illocutionary force. Communication Theory, 20, 249-268.
  • Dresner, E. and Herring, S.C., (2014). Emoticons and illocutionary force. InPerspectives on Theory of Controversies and the Ethics of Communication (pp. 81-90). Amsterdam: Springer Netherlands.
  • Erdoğan, İ. (2002). İletişimi Anlamak, Ankara: Erk Yayınları.
  • Erdoğan, İ. vd. (2002). Öteki Kuram, Ankara: Erk Yayınları.
  • Erdoğan, İ. (2012). Pozitivist Metedoloji ve Ötesi. Ankara: Erk Yayınları.
  • Esen, E. ve Siyez, D. M. (2011). Ergenlerde Internet Bağımlılığını Yordayan Psiko-sosyal Değişkenlerin İncelenmesi, Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4 (36), 127-138.
  • Evans, V. (2017). The Emoji Code: How Smiley Faces, Love Hearts and Thumbs up are Changing The Way We Communicate. London, UK: Michael O’Mara Books.
  • Glaser, B. G. (1965). The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis, Social Problems, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Spring, 1965), pp. 436-445 Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for the Study of Social Problems. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/798843 Accessed: 16/02/2015 14:35
  • Goffman, E. (1967). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday.
  • Goffman, E. (1983). 'The Interaction Order', American Sociological Review 48(1): 1-17
  • Goffman, E. (2009). Günlük Yaşamda Benliğin Sunumu, Çev. Barış Cezar. Ankara: Metis Yayınları.
  • Gopinath, S. (2013). The Ringtone Dialectic: Economy and Cultural Form. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Güneş, S. (2001). Modern Kitle Toplumunda Medya Kültür İlişkisi. Medya ve Kültür, Ankara: Vadi Yayınları, s.127-128.
  • Güneş, S. (2006), Kitle Kültürü Demokrasi ve Medya, Enformasyon Toplumunun Putları, Ankara: Hece Yayıncılık.
  • Günüç, S. (2009). İnternet Bağımlılık Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi ve Bazı Demografik Değişkenler ile İnternet Bağımlılığı Arasındaki İlişkilerin İncelenmesi. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Van.
  • Hardt, M. (1999). Affective Labor. Boundary 2, 26(2), 89–100.
  • Illouz, E. (2007). Cold intimacies: The Making of Emotional Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity.
  • https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/oct/27/emoji-inventor-shigetaka-kurita-moma-new-york-text Accessed: 16/02/2015 14:35
  • Jang, K. S., Hwang, S.Y. and Choi, J.Y. (2008). Internet Addiction and Psychiatric Symptoms Among Korean Adolescents. Journal of School Health, 78, 165-171.
  • Johansson, A. ve Götestam, K. G. (2004). Internet Addiction: Characteristics of a Questionnaire and Prevalence in Norwegian Youth (12–18 Years). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45, 223–229. Accessed: 10.10. 2017
  • Kahraman, Hasan Bülent (2002), “Postmodern Dönemde Gerçeğin Dönüşümü, Medya Ve Popüler Kültür”, Postmodernite İle Modernite Arasında Türkiye, İstanbul: Everest Yayınları, S. 191.
  • Kim, K., Ryu, E., Chon, M.Y., Yeun, E.J., Choi, S-Y., Seo, J.S. ve Nam, B.W. (2006). Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 185–192.
  • Lindlof, T. R. (1995). Qualitative Communication Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
  • Miller H., T. S. Jacob, Chang S., Johnson I., Terveen L.and Hecht B. (2016). “Blissfully Happy” or “Ready to Fight”: Varying Interpretations of Emoji, Proceedings of the Tenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM 2016). 259-268.
  • Martin, J. M. ve Schumacher, P. (2000). Incidence and Correlates of Pathological Internet Use Among College Students. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 13-29.
  • McIntyre, E.S., (2016). From Cave Paintings To Shakespeare And Back Again: What Are Emoji And Should I Be Afraid? (Doctoral dissertation). [Online], available from https://digital.library.txstate.edu/bitstream/handle/10877/6100/McIntyreEmily.pdf?sequence=1, [accessed 08.05.2018].
  • Mullaney, T. (2012). The Moveable Typewriter: How Chinese Typists Developed Predictive Text During The Height Of Maoism. Technology and Culture, 53, 777–814.
  • Naomi S. and Baron, (2009). “The myth of impoverished signal: Dispelling the spoken language fallacy for emoticons in online communication,” In: (Jane Vincent and Leopoldina Fortunati editors). Electronic emotion: The mediation of emotion via information and communication technologies. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 107–135.
  • Negishi, M. (2014): ‘Meet Shigetaka Kurita, the Father of Emoji’. [Online], available from https://blogs.wsj.com/japanrealtime/2014/03/26/meet-shigetaka-kurita-the-father-of-emoji/ [accessed 08.05.2018].
  • Nishimura, Y., (2015). A sociolinguistic analysis of emoticon usage in Japanese blogs: Variation by age, gender, and topic. In Selected Papers of Internet Research 16: The 16th Annual Meeting of the Association of Internet Researchers.
  • Özdemir, S. (1998), Medya Emperyalizmi ve Küreselleşme, İstanbul: Timaş Yayınları.
  • Pawlak, C. (2002). Correlates of Internet Use and Addiction in Adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 63(5-A), 1727.
  • Prensky, M. (2001) Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon MCB University Press, Vol. 9 No.5. https://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf Accessed: 16/01/2015
  • Prensky, Marc (2009) "H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom," Innovate: Journal of Online Education, Vol. 5: Iss. 3, Article 1. Available at: http://nsuworks.nova.edu/innovate/vol5/iss3/1, Accessed: 07.05. 2018.
  • Prensky, Marc (2012). From Digital natives to digital Wisdom. USA: Corwin A Sage Company.
  • Prensky, Marc (2016) Education to better their World, Unleashing the Power of 21st-Century Kids. NewYork: Teachers College Press.
  • Schiller, H (1993). Zihin Yönlendirenler, İstanbul: Pınar Yayınları.
  • Stark, L. and Crawford, K. (2015). The Conservatism of Emoji: Work, Affect, and Communication Social Media + Society, July-December 2015: 1–11. Sage.
  • Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Second edition. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
  • Sugiyama, S. (2015). Kawaii Meiru and Maroyaka Neko: Mobile Emoji for Relationship Maintenance and Aesthetic Expressions Among Japanese Teens. First Monday peer-reviewed Journal on the Internet, vol. 20, no. 10. http://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/5826/4997A Accessed: 29.09. 2017.
  • Walther, J. B. and D'Addario, K. P. (2001). The Impacts of Emoticons on Message Interpretation in Computer-Mediated Communication, Social Science Computer Review. Vol. 19 Iss.3, 324-347. Available at: http://hc.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d3323568/impactoemoticones.pdf, Accessed: 20.05.2018
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2005). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri, Güncelleştirilmiş Geliştirilmiş 5. Baskı, Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Year 2018, Volume , Issue 29, 279 - 300, 25.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.500954

Abstract

References

  • Alshenqeeti, H. (2016). Are Emojis Creating a New or Old Visual Language for New Generations? A Socio-semiotic Study, Advances in Language and Literary Studies I. Vol. 7 No. 6. Australia: Australian International Academic Centre. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.6p.56
  • Balta, Ö.Ç. ve Horzum, M.B. (2008). Web Tabanlı Öğretim Ortamındaki Öğrencilerin Internet Bağımlılığını Etkileyen Faktörler. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 41, 185-203.
  • Barbieri, F., Kruszewski, G., Ronzano, F. & Saggion, H. (2016). How cosmopolitan are emoji? In: MM '16 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on Multimedia Conference, 531–535. New York: ACM New York.
  • Bayad, A. (2016). Erving Goffman’ın Benlik Kavramı ve İnsan Doğası Varsayımı. Psikoloji Çalışmaları Dergisi, 36-1 65-80.
  • Bayraktar, F. ve Gün, Z. (2007). Incidence and Correlates of Internet Usage Among Adolescents in North Cyprus. Cyberpsychology & Behavior,10, 191-197.
  • Cao, F. and Su, L. (2007). Internet Addiction Among Chinese Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychological Features. Child Care Health Development, 33(3), 275-81.
  • Danesi, M. (2017). The semiotics of emoji: the rise of visual language in the age of the internet. London: Bluoomsbury Publishing.
  • Damasio, A. (2005). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. London: Penguin.
  • Dresner, E. & Herring, S. C. (2010). Functions of the nonverbal CMC: Emoticons and illocutionary force. Communication Theory, 20, 249-268.
  • Dresner, E. and Herring, S.C., (2014). Emoticons and illocutionary force. InPerspectives on Theory of Controversies and the Ethics of Communication (pp. 81-90). Amsterdam: Springer Netherlands.
  • Erdoğan, İ. (2002). İletişimi Anlamak, Ankara: Erk Yayınları.
  • Erdoğan, İ. vd. (2002). Öteki Kuram, Ankara: Erk Yayınları.
  • Erdoğan, İ. (2012). Pozitivist Metedoloji ve Ötesi. Ankara: Erk Yayınları.
  • Esen, E. ve Siyez, D. M. (2011). Ergenlerde Internet Bağımlılığını Yordayan Psiko-sosyal Değişkenlerin İncelenmesi, Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4 (36), 127-138.
  • Evans, V. (2017). The Emoji Code: How Smiley Faces, Love Hearts and Thumbs up are Changing The Way We Communicate. London, UK: Michael O’Mara Books.
  • Glaser, B. G. (1965). The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis, Social Problems, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Spring, 1965), pp. 436-445 Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for the Study of Social Problems. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/798843 Accessed: 16/02/2015 14:35
  • Goffman, E. (1967). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday.
  • Goffman, E. (1983). 'The Interaction Order', American Sociological Review 48(1): 1-17
  • Goffman, E. (2009). Günlük Yaşamda Benliğin Sunumu, Çev. Barış Cezar. Ankara: Metis Yayınları.
  • Gopinath, S. (2013). The Ringtone Dialectic: Economy and Cultural Form. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Güneş, S. (2001). Modern Kitle Toplumunda Medya Kültür İlişkisi. Medya ve Kültür, Ankara: Vadi Yayınları, s.127-128.
  • Güneş, S. (2006), Kitle Kültürü Demokrasi ve Medya, Enformasyon Toplumunun Putları, Ankara: Hece Yayıncılık.
  • Günüç, S. (2009). İnternet Bağımlılık Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi ve Bazı Demografik Değişkenler ile İnternet Bağımlılığı Arasındaki İlişkilerin İncelenmesi. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Van.
  • Hardt, M. (1999). Affective Labor. Boundary 2, 26(2), 89–100.
  • Illouz, E. (2007). Cold intimacies: The Making of Emotional Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity.
  • https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/oct/27/emoji-inventor-shigetaka-kurita-moma-new-york-text Accessed: 16/02/2015 14:35
  • Jang, K. S., Hwang, S.Y. and Choi, J.Y. (2008). Internet Addiction and Psychiatric Symptoms Among Korean Adolescents. Journal of School Health, 78, 165-171.
  • Johansson, A. ve Götestam, K. G. (2004). Internet Addiction: Characteristics of a Questionnaire and Prevalence in Norwegian Youth (12–18 Years). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45, 223–229. Accessed: 10.10. 2017
  • Kahraman, Hasan Bülent (2002), “Postmodern Dönemde Gerçeğin Dönüşümü, Medya Ve Popüler Kültür”, Postmodernite İle Modernite Arasında Türkiye, İstanbul: Everest Yayınları, S. 191.
  • Kim, K., Ryu, E., Chon, M.Y., Yeun, E.J., Choi, S-Y., Seo, J.S. ve Nam, B.W. (2006). Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 185–192.
  • Lindlof, T. R. (1995). Qualitative Communication Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
  • Miller H., T. S. Jacob, Chang S., Johnson I., Terveen L.and Hecht B. (2016). “Blissfully Happy” or “Ready to Fight”: Varying Interpretations of Emoji, Proceedings of the Tenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM 2016). 259-268.
  • Martin, J. M. ve Schumacher, P. (2000). Incidence and Correlates of Pathological Internet Use Among College Students. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 13-29.
  • McIntyre, E.S., (2016). From Cave Paintings To Shakespeare And Back Again: What Are Emoji And Should I Be Afraid? (Doctoral dissertation). [Online], available from https://digital.library.txstate.edu/bitstream/handle/10877/6100/McIntyreEmily.pdf?sequence=1, [accessed 08.05.2018].
  • Mullaney, T. (2012). The Moveable Typewriter: How Chinese Typists Developed Predictive Text During The Height Of Maoism. Technology and Culture, 53, 777–814.
  • Naomi S. and Baron, (2009). “The myth of impoverished signal: Dispelling the spoken language fallacy for emoticons in online communication,” In: (Jane Vincent and Leopoldina Fortunati editors). Electronic emotion: The mediation of emotion via information and communication technologies. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 107–135.
  • Negishi, M. (2014): ‘Meet Shigetaka Kurita, the Father of Emoji’. [Online], available from https://blogs.wsj.com/japanrealtime/2014/03/26/meet-shigetaka-kurita-the-father-of-emoji/ [accessed 08.05.2018].
  • Nishimura, Y., (2015). A sociolinguistic analysis of emoticon usage in Japanese blogs: Variation by age, gender, and topic. In Selected Papers of Internet Research 16: The 16th Annual Meeting of the Association of Internet Researchers.
  • Özdemir, S. (1998), Medya Emperyalizmi ve Küreselleşme, İstanbul: Timaş Yayınları.
  • Pawlak, C. (2002). Correlates of Internet Use and Addiction in Adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 63(5-A), 1727.
  • Prensky, M. (2001) Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon MCB University Press, Vol. 9 No.5. https://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf Accessed: 16/01/2015
  • Prensky, Marc (2009) "H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom," Innovate: Journal of Online Education, Vol. 5: Iss. 3, Article 1. Available at: http://nsuworks.nova.edu/innovate/vol5/iss3/1, Accessed: 07.05. 2018.
  • Prensky, Marc (2012). From Digital natives to digital Wisdom. USA: Corwin A Sage Company.
  • Prensky, Marc (2016) Education to better their World, Unleashing the Power of 21st-Century Kids. NewYork: Teachers College Press.
  • Schiller, H (1993). Zihin Yönlendirenler, İstanbul: Pınar Yayınları.
  • Stark, L. and Crawford, K. (2015). The Conservatism of Emoji: Work, Affect, and Communication Social Media + Society, July-December 2015: 1–11. Sage.
  • Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Second edition. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
  • Sugiyama, S. (2015). Kawaii Meiru and Maroyaka Neko: Mobile Emoji for Relationship Maintenance and Aesthetic Expressions Among Japanese Teens. First Monday peer-reviewed Journal on the Internet, vol. 20, no. 10. http://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/5826/4997A Accessed: 29.09. 2017.
  • Walther, J. B. and D'Addario, K. P. (2001). The Impacts of Emoticons on Message Interpretation in Computer-Mediated Communication, Social Science Computer Review. Vol. 19 Iss.3, 324-347. Available at: http://hc.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d3323568/impactoemoticones.pdf, Accessed: 20.05.2018
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2005). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri, Güncelleştirilmiş Geliştirilmiş 5. Baskı, Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Sibel ONURSOY (Primary Author)
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İLETİŞİM BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-6414-0454

Publication Date December 25, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume , Issue 29

Cite

APA Onursoy, S. (2018). Using Emojis: Self-Presentation and Different Meaning Creation Approaches . Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi , (29) , 279-300 . DOI: 10.16878/gsuilet.500954

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