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International Flow of Information: A Conceptual Analysis

Year 2008, Volume , Issue 9, 101 - 122, 01.04.2008

Abstract

International flow of information directly reflects the developments in world economy, politics and culture. The effects of the flows are widespread in local, regional, national, international and transnational levels. Today the mediated relationships between these levels become visible by global information flows. There is an intense accumulation of studies and comments on international flow of information in the literature. These studies have developed on the axis of critical approaches which depend on the concept of "cultural imperialism' and culturalist approaches which depend on the concept of "globalization". In this study, international flow of information is examined on the basis of these conceptual approaches. Firstly, "free flow of information", which was formulated by Western countries in the leadership of the USA after the Second World War, is reviewed. Secondly, "free and balanced flow of information" is scrutinized in the framework of "New International Communication Order" of 1970's. Thirdly, alternative "contra-flows" which became prominent by globalization process are analyzed. In conclusion, the need for interaction between the dominant paradigms is emphasized in order to elaborate the debate related with international flow of information.

References

  • ADIL, Idris (1991). Haberde Disa Bagimlilik. Istanbul: Gazeteciler Cemiyeti Yayini: 30.
  • ALLEYNE, Mark D. (1997). News Revolution: Political and Economic Decisions About Global Information. New York: St. Martin’s.
  • APPADURAI, Arjun (1996). Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • BECK, Ulrich (2000). What is Globalization? Cambridge: Polity.
  • BECK, Ulrich (2005). Power in the Global Age. Cambridge: Polity.
  • BOYD-BARRETT, Oliver (1979). "Media imperialism: towards an international framework for the analysis of media systems" içinde James Curran, Michael Gurevitch ve Janet Woollacott (der.), Mass Communication and Society. London: Open University:116-135.
  • BOYD-BARRETT, Oliver (1998). "Media imperialism reformulated" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Electronic Empires: Global Media and Social Resistance. London: Edward Arnold:157-176.
  • CASTELLS, Manuel (2005). Enformasyon Çagi: Ekonomi, Toplum ve Kültür. 1. Cilt: Ag Toplumunun Yükselifli. Çev.: Ebru Kiliç, Istanbul: Istanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayinlari:97.
  • CHALABY, Jean. (2002). "Transnational television in Europe: the role of Pan European channels", European Journal of Communication 17(2): 183-203.
  • COTTLE, Simon ve RAI, Mugdha (2008). "Global 24/7 news providers", Global Media and Communication 4(2):157-181.
  • CUNNINGHAM, Stuart; JACKA, Elizabeth ve SINCLAIR, John (1998). "Global and regional dynamics of international television flows" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Electronic Empires: Global Media and Social Resistance. London: Edward Arnold: 177-192.
  • CURTIN, Michael (2003). "Media capital: towards the study of spatial flows", International Journal of Cultural Studies 6(2):202-228.
  • DURHAM, Meenakshi Gigi ve KELLNER, Douglas M.(der.) (2006). Media and Cultural Studies: Key Works. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • DURMUS, Nurgül H. (2004). Uluslararasi Dengesiz Iletiflim Akisi ve Gelisen Teknoloji Baglaminda Sorunun Günümüzdeki Durumu, Yayinlanmamis Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • FASCELL, Dante B. (1976). International News: Freedom Under Attack. London: Sage.
  • GEORGIOU, Myria ve SILVERSTONE, Roger (2007). "Diasporas and contraflows beyond nation-centrism" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Media on the Move: Global Flow and Contra-Flow. London: Routledge:33-48.
  • GROSSWILER, Paul (2004). "Continuing media controversies" içinde Arnold S. de Beer ve John C. Merrill (der.), Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems. Boston: Pearson:112-127.
  • GÜNER, Fatih (1998). Uluslararasi Dengesiz Haber Akisinin Ülke Tanitimina Etkisi Yayinlanmamis Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • HACHTEN, William A. (1987). The World News Prism: Changing Media and Clashing Idologies. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
  • HAMELINK, Cees J. (1997). The Politics of World Communication: A Human Rights Perspective. London: Sage.
  • HANNERZ, Ulf (1996). Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places. London: Routledge.
  • HELD, David (2004). A Globalizing World? Culture, Economics, Politics. London: Routledge.
  • HELD, David; McGREW, Anthony; GOLDBLAT, David ve PERRATON Jonathan (1999). Global Transformations: Polities, Economics and Culture. Cambridge: Polity.
  • HERMAN, Edward ve McCHESNEY, Robert (1997). The Global Media: The New Missionaries of Corporate Capitalism. London: Cassell.
  • KALDOR, Mary (2003). Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Polity.
  • KARIM, Karim H. (der.) (2003). The Media of Diaspora. London: Routledge.
  • LEHMAN, Maxwell ve BURKE, Thomas J.M. (der.) (1981). Communication Technologies and Information Flow. New York: Pergamon.
  • LULL, James (der.) (2001). Culture in the Communication Age. London: Routledge.
  • MEHRA, Achal (1986). Free Flow of Information: A New Paradigm. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood.
  • MERRILL, John C. (1983). Global Journalism: A. Survey of World’s Media. New York: Longman.
  • MEYER, William H. (1991). "Structures of North-South Information Flows: An Empirical Test of Galtung’s Theory", Journalism Quarterly 68 (1/2): 230-237.
  • MOWLANA, Hamid (1986). Global Information and World Communication. New York: Longman.
  • MOWLANA, Hamid (1996). Global Communication in Transition: The End of Diversity? London: Sage.
  • NORDENSTRENG, Kaarle ve VARIS Tapio (1974). Television Traffic: A One-Way Street?: A Survey and Analysis of the International Flow of Television Programme Material. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication:70. Paris: Unesco.
  • ÖNGÖREN, Gürsel (der.) (1995). Uluslararasi Iletiflim. Istanbul: Der Yayinlari.
  • RICHSTAD, Jim ve ANDERSON, Michael (1981). "Policy context for news and a ‘new order’" içinde Jim Richstad ve Michael Anderson (der.), Crisis in International News: Policies and Prospects. New York: Columbia University Press: 9-34.
  • SCHILLER, Herbert I. (1981). "Genesis of the free flow of information principles" içinde Jim Richstad ve Michael Anderson (der.), Crisis in International News: Policies and Prospects. New York: Columbia University Press: 161-183.
  • SEMATI, Mehdi (2004). "Introduction: new frontiers in international communication" içinde Mehdi Semati (der.), New Frontiers in International Communication Theory. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield: 1-16.
  • SINCLAIR, John ve CUNNINGHAM, Stuart (2000). "Go with the flow: diasporas and the media", Television and New Media 1(1): 11-31.
  • SPARKS, Colin (1998). "Is there a global public sphere?" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Electronic Empires: Global Media and Local Resistance. London: Edward Arnold:108-124.
  • SPARKS, Colin (2007). "What’s wrong with globalization?" Global Media and Communication 3(2) : 133-155.
  • SPERO, Joan Edelman (1982). "Information-the policy void", Foreign Policy 48 (güz sayisi): 139-156.
  • SREBERNY-MOHAMMADI, Annabelle (1991). "The global and the local in international communications" içinde James Curran ve Michael Gurevitch (der.), Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold: 118-138.
  • STEVENSON, Robert L.ve COLE, Richard (1984). "Patterns of Foreign News", içinde Robert L Stevenson ve Donald Lewis Shaw (der.) Foreign News and the New World Information Order. Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press.
  • STRAUBHAAR, Joseph D. (1997). "Distinguishing the global, regional and national levels of world television" içinde Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi, Dwayne Winseck, Jim McKenna ve Oliver Boyd-Barrett (der.), Media in Global Context: A Reader. London: Edward Arnold:284-298.
  • THUSSU, Daya Kishan (2007). "Mapping global media flow and contra-flow" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Media on the Move: Global Flow and ContraFlow. London: Routledge: 11-32.
  • TOMLINSON, John (1999). Globalization and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • TOPUZ, Hifzi (1984). Uluslararasi Iletiflim. Eskiflehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayinlari:85.
  • TUNSTALL, Jeremy (1977). The Media are American: Anglo-American Media in the World. London: Constable.
  • UNESCO (1977). Statistical Yearbook.
  • VOLKMER, Ingrid (2003). " The global network society and the global public sphere", Development 46(1): 9-16.
  • WATERS, Malcolm (1995). Globalization. London: Routledge.
  • YERMOSHKIN, N. (1984). Spiritual Neo-Colonialism. Prague: International Organization of Journalists.

Flux d'information international : Une analyse conceptuelle

Year 2008, Volume , Issue 9, 101 - 122, 01.04.2008

Abstract

Le flux d'information international reflète directement les développements dans l'économie mondiale, la politique et la culture. Les effets des flux sont étendus dans les niveaux locaux, régionaux, nationaux, internationaux et transnationaux. Aujourd'hui les rapports négociés entre ces niveaux deviennent très apparents par des flux d'informations globales. Dans la littérature, il y a une accumulation intense des études et commentaires sur les flux d'informations internationaux. Ces études se sont développées sur l'axe des approches critiques qui dépendent du concept de l'impérialisme culturel et des approches culturelles qui dépendent du concept de la globalisation. Dans cette étude, le flux d'information international est examiné dans la base de ces approches conceptuelles. Premièrement, le flux d'information libre, qui a été formulé par les pays occidentaux dans la conduite des Etats-Unis après la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale, est examiné. Deuxièmement, le flux d'information libre et équilibré est contrôlé dans le cadre du Nouvel Ordre International de Communication des années 70. Troisièmement, l'alternative de contre-flux qui a pris une allure importante par le processus de globalisation est analysée. En conclusion, le besoin d'interaction entre les paradigmes dominants est souligné afin d'élaborer la discussion relative au flux d'information international.

References

  • ADIL, Idris (1991). Haberde Disa Bagimlilik. Istanbul: Gazeteciler Cemiyeti Yayini: 30.
  • ALLEYNE, Mark D. (1997). News Revolution: Political and Economic Decisions About Global Information. New York: St. Martin’s.
  • APPADURAI, Arjun (1996). Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • BECK, Ulrich (2000). What is Globalization? Cambridge: Polity.
  • BECK, Ulrich (2005). Power in the Global Age. Cambridge: Polity.
  • BOYD-BARRETT, Oliver (1979). "Media imperialism: towards an international framework for the analysis of media systems" içinde James Curran, Michael Gurevitch ve Janet Woollacott (der.), Mass Communication and Society. London: Open University:116-135.
  • BOYD-BARRETT, Oliver (1998). "Media imperialism reformulated" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Electronic Empires: Global Media and Social Resistance. London: Edward Arnold:157-176.
  • CASTELLS, Manuel (2005). Enformasyon Çagi: Ekonomi, Toplum ve Kültür. 1. Cilt: Ag Toplumunun Yükselifli. Çev.: Ebru Kiliç, Istanbul: Istanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayinlari:97.
  • CHALABY, Jean. (2002). "Transnational television in Europe: the role of Pan European channels", European Journal of Communication 17(2): 183-203.
  • COTTLE, Simon ve RAI, Mugdha (2008). "Global 24/7 news providers", Global Media and Communication 4(2):157-181.
  • CUNNINGHAM, Stuart; JACKA, Elizabeth ve SINCLAIR, John (1998). "Global and regional dynamics of international television flows" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Electronic Empires: Global Media and Social Resistance. London: Edward Arnold: 177-192.
  • CURTIN, Michael (2003). "Media capital: towards the study of spatial flows", International Journal of Cultural Studies 6(2):202-228.
  • DURHAM, Meenakshi Gigi ve KELLNER, Douglas M.(der.) (2006). Media and Cultural Studies: Key Works. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • DURMUS, Nurgül H. (2004). Uluslararasi Dengesiz Iletiflim Akisi ve Gelisen Teknoloji Baglaminda Sorunun Günümüzdeki Durumu, Yayinlanmamis Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • FASCELL, Dante B. (1976). International News: Freedom Under Attack. London: Sage.
  • GEORGIOU, Myria ve SILVERSTONE, Roger (2007). "Diasporas and contraflows beyond nation-centrism" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Media on the Move: Global Flow and Contra-Flow. London: Routledge:33-48.
  • GROSSWILER, Paul (2004). "Continuing media controversies" içinde Arnold S. de Beer ve John C. Merrill (der.), Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems. Boston: Pearson:112-127.
  • GÜNER, Fatih (1998). Uluslararasi Dengesiz Haber Akisinin Ülke Tanitimina Etkisi Yayinlanmamis Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • HACHTEN, William A. (1987). The World News Prism: Changing Media and Clashing Idologies. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
  • HAMELINK, Cees J. (1997). The Politics of World Communication: A Human Rights Perspective. London: Sage.
  • HANNERZ, Ulf (1996). Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places. London: Routledge.
  • HELD, David (2004). A Globalizing World? Culture, Economics, Politics. London: Routledge.
  • HELD, David; McGREW, Anthony; GOLDBLAT, David ve PERRATON Jonathan (1999). Global Transformations: Polities, Economics and Culture. Cambridge: Polity.
  • HERMAN, Edward ve McCHESNEY, Robert (1997). The Global Media: The New Missionaries of Corporate Capitalism. London: Cassell.
  • KALDOR, Mary (2003). Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Polity.
  • KARIM, Karim H. (der.) (2003). The Media of Diaspora. London: Routledge.
  • LEHMAN, Maxwell ve BURKE, Thomas J.M. (der.) (1981). Communication Technologies and Information Flow. New York: Pergamon.
  • LULL, James (der.) (2001). Culture in the Communication Age. London: Routledge.
  • MEHRA, Achal (1986). Free Flow of Information: A New Paradigm. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood.
  • MERRILL, John C. (1983). Global Journalism: A. Survey of World’s Media. New York: Longman.
  • MEYER, William H. (1991). "Structures of North-South Information Flows: An Empirical Test of Galtung’s Theory", Journalism Quarterly 68 (1/2): 230-237.
  • MOWLANA, Hamid (1986). Global Information and World Communication. New York: Longman.
  • MOWLANA, Hamid (1996). Global Communication in Transition: The End of Diversity? London: Sage.
  • NORDENSTRENG, Kaarle ve VARIS Tapio (1974). Television Traffic: A One-Way Street?: A Survey and Analysis of the International Flow of Television Programme Material. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication:70. Paris: Unesco.
  • ÖNGÖREN, Gürsel (der.) (1995). Uluslararasi Iletiflim. Istanbul: Der Yayinlari.
  • RICHSTAD, Jim ve ANDERSON, Michael (1981). "Policy context for news and a ‘new order’" içinde Jim Richstad ve Michael Anderson (der.), Crisis in International News: Policies and Prospects. New York: Columbia University Press: 9-34.
  • SCHILLER, Herbert I. (1981). "Genesis of the free flow of information principles" içinde Jim Richstad ve Michael Anderson (der.), Crisis in International News: Policies and Prospects. New York: Columbia University Press: 161-183.
  • SEMATI, Mehdi (2004). "Introduction: new frontiers in international communication" içinde Mehdi Semati (der.), New Frontiers in International Communication Theory. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield: 1-16.
  • SINCLAIR, John ve CUNNINGHAM, Stuart (2000). "Go with the flow: diasporas and the media", Television and New Media 1(1): 11-31.
  • SPARKS, Colin (1998). "Is there a global public sphere?" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Electronic Empires: Global Media and Local Resistance. London: Edward Arnold:108-124.
  • SPARKS, Colin (2007). "What’s wrong with globalization?" Global Media and Communication 3(2) : 133-155.
  • SPERO, Joan Edelman (1982). "Information-the policy void", Foreign Policy 48 (güz sayisi): 139-156.
  • SREBERNY-MOHAMMADI, Annabelle (1991). "The global and the local in international communications" içinde James Curran ve Michael Gurevitch (der.), Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold: 118-138.
  • STEVENSON, Robert L.ve COLE, Richard (1984). "Patterns of Foreign News", içinde Robert L Stevenson ve Donald Lewis Shaw (der.) Foreign News and the New World Information Order. Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press.
  • STRAUBHAAR, Joseph D. (1997). "Distinguishing the global, regional and national levels of world television" içinde Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi, Dwayne Winseck, Jim McKenna ve Oliver Boyd-Barrett (der.), Media in Global Context: A Reader. London: Edward Arnold:284-298.
  • THUSSU, Daya Kishan (2007). "Mapping global media flow and contra-flow" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Media on the Move: Global Flow and ContraFlow. London: Routledge: 11-32.
  • TOMLINSON, John (1999). Globalization and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • TOPUZ, Hifzi (1984). Uluslararasi Iletiflim. Eskiflehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayinlari:85.
  • TUNSTALL, Jeremy (1977). The Media are American: Anglo-American Media in the World. London: Constable.
  • UNESCO (1977). Statistical Yearbook.
  • VOLKMER, Ingrid (2003). " The global network society and the global public sphere", Development 46(1): 9-16.
  • WATERS, Malcolm (1995). Globalization. London: Routledge.
  • YERMOSHKIN, N. (1984). Spiritual Neo-Colonialism. Prague: International Organization of Journalists.

Uluslararası Enformasyon Akışı: Kavramsal Bir Çözümleme

Year 2008, Volume , Issue 9, 101 - 122, 01.04.2008

Abstract

Uluslararası enformasyon akışı dünya ekonomisi, siyaseti ve kültüründe ortaya çıkan gelişmelerin dolaysız yansıtıcısı konumundadır. Söz konusu akışın etkileri yerel, ulusal, bölgesel, uluslararası ve uluslarötesi düzeylere uzanan bir yaygınlığa sahiptir. Bu düzeyler arasında gerçekleşen dolayımlandırılmış ilişkiler günümüzde küresel enformasyon akışları aracılığıyla görünür kılınmaktadır. Uluslararası enformasyon akışı üzerine yapılan araştırma ve yorumlar literatürde yoğun bir birikim oluşturmaktadır. Sözü edilen araştırmalar "kültürel emperyalizm" kavramına dayalı eleştirel yaklaşımlar ile "küreselleşme" kavramına dayalı kültürelci yaklaşımlar arasındaki karşıtlık ekseninde gelişim göstermiştir. Bu çalışmada, uluslararası enformasyon akışı söz konusu kavramsal yaklaşımlar temelinde incelenmiştir. İlk olarak, savaş sonrası ABD önderliğindeki Batı tarafından formüle edilen "özgür enformasyon akışı" üzerinde durulmuştur. İkinci olarak, 1970'lerin "Yeni Uluslararası İletişim Düzeni" çerçevesinde ortaya çıkan "özgür ve dengeli enformasyon akışı" kavramı incelenmiştir. Üçüncü olarak ise küreselleşme süreci ile belirginlik kazanan alternatif nitelikli "karşı-akışlar" ele alınmıştır. Sonuçta, uluslararası enformasyon akışına ilişkin kavramsal tartışmaların daha da geliştirilmesine yönelik olarak farklı paradigmalar arasındaki etkileşimin gereğine vurgu yapılmıştır.

References

  • ADIL, Idris (1991). Haberde Disa Bagimlilik. Istanbul: Gazeteciler Cemiyeti Yayini: 30.
  • ALLEYNE, Mark D. (1997). News Revolution: Political and Economic Decisions About Global Information. New York: St. Martin’s.
  • APPADURAI, Arjun (1996). Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • BECK, Ulrich (2000). What is Globalization? Cambridge: Polity.
  • BECK, Ulrich (2005). Power in the Global Age. Cambridge: Polity.
  • BOYD-BARRETT, Oliver (1979). "Media imperialism: towards an international framework for the analysis of media systems" içinde James Curran, Michael Gurevitch ve Janet Woollacott (der.), Mass Communication and Society. London: Open University:116-135.
  • BOYD-BARRETT, Oliver (1998). "Media imperialism reformulated" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Electronic Empires: Global Media and Social Resistance. London: Edward Arnold:157-176.
  • CASTELLS, Manuel (2005). Enformasyon Çagi: Ekonomi, Toplum ve Kültür. 1. Cilt: Ag Toplumunun Yükselifli. Çev.: Ebru Kiliç, Istanbul: Istanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayinlari:97.
  • CHALABY, Jean. (2002). "Transnational television in Europe: the role of Pan European channels", European Journal of Communication 17(2): 183-203.
  • COTTLE, Simon ve RAI, Mugdha (2008). "Global 24/7 news providers", Global Media and Communication 4(2):157-181.
  • CUNNINGHAM, Stuart; JACKA, Elizabeth ve SINCLAIR, John (1998). "Global and regional dynamics of international television flows" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Electronic Empires: Global Media and Social Resistance. London: Edward Arnold: 177-192.
  • CURTIN, Michael (2003). "Media capital: towards the study of spatial flows", International Journal of Cultural Studies 6(2):202-228.
  • DURHAM, Meenakshi Gigi ve KELLNER, Douglas M.(der.) (2006). Media and Cultural Studies: Key Works. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • DURMUS, Nurgül H. (2004). Uluslararasi Dengesiz Iletiflim Akisi ve Gelisen Teknoloji Baglaminda Sorunun Günümüzdeki Durumu, Yayinlanmamis Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • FASCELL, Dante B. (1976). International News: Freedom Under Attack. London: Sage.
  • GEORGIOU, Myria ve SILVERSTONE, Roger (2007). "Diasporas and contraflows beyond nation-centrism" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Media on the Move: Global Flow and Contra-Flow. London: Routledge:33-48.
  • GROSSWILER, Paul (2004). "Continuing media controversies" içinde Arnold S. de Beer ve John C. Merrill (der.), Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems. Boston: Pearson:112-127.
  • GÜNER, Fatih (1998). Uluslararasi Dengesiz Haber Akisinin Ülke Tanitimina Etkisi Yayinlanmamis Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • HACHTEN, William A. (1987). The World News Prism: Changing Media and Clashing Idologies. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
  • HAMELINK, Cees J. (1997). The Politics of World Communication: A Human Rights Perspective. London: Sage.
  • HANNERZ, Ulf (1996). Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places. London: Routledge.
  • HELD, David (2004). A Globalizing World? Culture, Economics, Politics. London: Routledge.
  • HELD, David; McGREW, Anthony; GOLDBLAT, David ve PERRATON Jonathan (1999). Global Transformations: Polities, Economics and Culture. Cambridge: Polity.
  • HERMAN, Edward ve McCHESNEY, Robert (1997). The Global Media: The New Missionaries of Corporate Capitalism. London: Cassell.
  • KALDOR, Mary (2003). Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Polity.
  • KARIM, Karim H. (der.) (2003). The Media of Diaspora. London: Routledge.
  • LEHMAN, Maxwell ve BURKE, Thomas J.M. (der.) (1981). Communication Technologies and Information Flow. New York: Pergamon.
  • LULL, James (der.) (2001). Culture in the Communication Age. London: Routledge.
  • MEHRA, Achal (1986). Free Flow of Information: A New Paradigm. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood.
  • MERRILL, John C. (1983). Global Journalism: A. Survey of World’s Media. New York: Longman.
  • MEYER, William H. (1991). "Structures of North-South Information Flows: An Empirical Test of Galtung’s Theory", Journalism Quarterly 68 (1/2): 230-237.
  • MOWLANA, Hamid (1986). Global Information and World Communication. New York: Longman.
  • MOWLANA, Hamid (1996). Global Communication in Transition: The End of Diversity? London: Sage.
  • NORDENSTRENG, Kaarle ve VARIS Tapio (1974). Television Traffic: A One-Way Street?: A Survey and Analysis of the International Flow of Television Programme Material. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication:70. Paris: Unesco.
  • ÖNGÖREN, Gürsel (der.) (1995). Uluslararasi Iletiflim. Istanbul: Der Yayinlari.
  • RICHSTAD, Jim ve ANDERSON, Michael (1981). "Policy context for news and a ‘new order’" içinde Jim Richstad ve Michael Anderson (der.), Crisis in International News: Policies and Prospects. New York: Columbia University Press: 9-34.
  • SCHILLER, Herbert I. (1981). "Genesis of the free flow of information principles" içinde Jim Richstad ve Michael Anderson (der.), Crisis in International News: Policies and Prospects. New York: Columbia University Press: 161-183.
  • SEMATI, Mehdi (2004). "Introduction: new frontiers in international communication" içinde Mehdi Semati (der.), New Frontiers in International Communication Theory. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield: 1-16.
  • SINCLAIR, John ve CUNNINGHAM, Stuart (2000). "Go with the flow: diasporas and the media", Television and New Media 1(1): 11-31.
  • SPARKS, Colin (1998). "Is there a global public sphere?" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Electronic Empires: Global Media and Local Resistance. London: Edward Arnold:108-124.
  • SPARKS, Colin (2007). "What’s wrong with globalization?" Global Media and Communication 3(2) : 133-155.
  • SPERO, Joan Edelman (1982). "Information-the policy void", Foreign Policy 48 (güz sayisi): 139-156.
  • SREBERNY-MOHAMMADI, Annabelle (1991). "The global and the local in international communications" içinde James Curran ve Michael Gurevitch (der.), Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold: 118-138.
  • STEVENSON, Robert L.ve COLE, Richard (1984). "Patterns of Foreign News", içinde Robert L Stevenson ve Donald Lewis Shaw (der.) Foreign News and the New World Information Order. Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press.
  • STRAUBHAAR, Joseph D. (1997). "Distinguishing the global, regional and national levels of world television" içinde Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi, Dwayne Winseck, Jim McKenna ve Oliver Boyd-Barrett (der.), Media in Global Context: A Reader. London: Edward Arnold:284-298.
  • THUSSU, Daya Kishan (2007). "Mapping global media flow and contra-flow" içinde Daya Kishan Thussu (der.), Media on the Move: Global Flow and ContraFlow. London: Routledge: 11-32.
  • TOMLINSON, John (1999). Globalization and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • TOPUZ, Hifzi (1984). Uluslararasi Iletiflim. Eskiflehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayinlari:85.
  • TUNSTALL, Jeremy (1977). The Media are American: Anglo-American Media in the World. London: Constable.
  • UNESCO (1977). Statistical Yearbook.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Semra AKDEMİR This is me

Publication Date April 1, 2008
Published in Issue Year 2008, Volume , Issue 9

Cite

APA Akdemir, Y. D. D. S. (2008). Uluslararası Enformasyon Akışı: Kavramsal Bir Çözümleme . Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi , (9) , 101-122 . Retrieved from https://iletisimdergisi.gsu.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/7370/96490

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