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Miyazaki and the West: A Comparative Analysis of Narrative Structure in Animated Films for Children

Year 2008, Issue 9, 11 - 30, 01.04.2008

Abstract

The essay undertakes an analysis of selected animated films for children produced by production companies such as Disney and Dreamworks between 1994 and 2006, and compares the results with those of a parallel analysis of films written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli in Japan, the only Japanese animated films with a similarly global audience. The analysis is guided by the approach of the Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp in the identification and tabulation of key narrative elements, which Propp termed 'functions'. The results of the tabulation indicate that the generic elements common to the 'western' animated examples are largely absent from the narratives of the Studio Ghibli films. The analysis also reveals a disparity in the ideological intention of the two groups of films: the western examples, with few exceptions, emphasise the primacy of the group or family, with their characteristic ideals of tolerance and solidarity, while the Ghibli productions adhere to what is in many respects a more traditional struggle between the representatives of good and evil, within a broadly ecological context. The implications of these findings are examined in terms of the relationship between conventional narrative devices and imaginative cinematic storytelling for children.

References

  • BORDWELL, D. (1989), Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
  • BENDAZZI, G. (1996), Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Animation,
  • Bloomington: Indiana University Press. BROPHY, P. (1994) (ed.), Kaboom Explosive Animation from America and Japan, Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art.
  • FORGACS, D. (1992), Disney Animation and the Business of Childhood in Screen 3:4 pp. 361-374.
  • GIROUX, H. (1998), 'Are Disney Movies Good for Your Kids?', in Steinberg, S.R. and Kincheloe, J.L. (eds.) Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of
  • Childhood, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. GLEDHILL C. (1999): History of Genre Criticism in Cook and Bernink (eds). The Cinema Book, London: British Film Institute pp. 137-147.
  • GREIMAS, A.J. (1966), Sémantique Structurelle, Recherche de Méthode, Paris: Librarie Larousse.
  • HARVEY D. (1989), The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • KATO, H. (1989), Japanese Popular Culture Reconsidered in Powers and Kato
  • (eds.) Handbook of Japanese Popular Culture, Westport: Greenwood Press. LÉVI-STRAUSS C. (1976), Structural Anthropology Vol. 2, (tr.) Monique Layton,
  • New York; Basic Books. McCARTHY H. (1999), Hayao Miyazaki, Master of Japanese Animation,
  • Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press. MIYAZAKI, H. (1997), Shuppatsuten (Points of Departure) 1979-1996, Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten.
  • NEALE S. (2000), Genre and Hollywood, London: Routledge.
  • PROPP, V. (1924/1968), Morphology of the Folk Tale(tr.) Laurence Scott. Austin:
  • University of Texas Press. PROPP, V. (1984), Theory and History of Folklore, (ed.) Anatoly Liberman,
  • Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. PYM, J. (2007) (ed.), Time Out Film Guide; review of Kiki’s Delivery Service by Nick Bradshaw, p.612.
  • SMOODIN H. (1994) (ed.), Disney Discourse, New York: Routledge.
  • TREDELL, N. (2002), Cinemas of the Mind, Cambridge, UK: Icon Books.
  • WELLS, P. (1998) (ed.), Art and Animation, London: Academy Group.
  • WOLLEN P. (1982), Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter Strategies,
  • London: New Left Books.

Miyazaki et l'ouest: une analyse comparative de la structure narrative dans les film d'animation pour les enfants

Year 2008, Issue 9, 11 - 30, 01.04.2008

Abstract

Cet article contient une analyse de certains films d'animation pour les enfants produites par des sociétés de production tels que Disney et Dreamworks entre 1994 et 2006, et compare les résultats avec ceux d'un analyse parallèle de films écrit et réalisé par Hayao Miyazaki et produit par le Studio Ghibli au Japon, les seuls films d'animation japonais avec un même public mondial. L'analyse est guidée par l'approche de la folkloriste russe Vladimir Propp dans l'identification et la classification des principaux éléments narratifs, appelés par Propp fonctions. Les résultats de la classification indiquent que les éléments génériques communs aux exemples d'animation « occidentales » sont largement absents dans les récits des films Studio Ghibli. L'analyse révèle également une disparité dans l'intention idéologique des deux groupes de films: exemples de l'ouest, avec quelques exceptions, souligne la primauté du groupe ou la famille, avec leurs caractéristique idéales de tolérance et de solidarité, tandis que les productions Ghibli adhèrent à une lutte plus traditionnelles entre les représentants du bien et du mal, dans un large contexte écologique. Les implications de ces conclusions sont examinées sous l'angle de la relation entre les dispositifs narratifs classiques et d'imagination cinématographique d'histoires pour les enfants.

References

  • BORDWELL, D. (1989), Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
  • BENDAZZI, G. (1996), Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Animation,
  • Bloomington: Indiana University Press. BROPHY, P. (1994) (ed.), Kaboom Explosive Animation from America and Japan, Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art.
  • FORGACS, D. (1992), Disney Animation and the Business of Childhood in Screen 3:4 pp. 361-374.
  • GIROUX, H. (1998), 'Are Disney Movies Good for Your Kids?', in Steinberg, S.R. and Kincheloe, J.L. (eds.) Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of
  • Childhood, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. GLEDHILL C. (1999): History of Genre Criticism in Cook and Bernink (eds). The Cinema Book, London: British Film Institute pp. 137-147.
  • GREIMAS, A.J. (1966), Sémantique Structurelle, Recherche de Méthode, Paris: Librarie Larousse.
  • HARVEY D. (1989), The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • KATO, H. (1989), Japanese Popular Culture Reconsidered in Powers and Kato
  • (eds.) Handbook of Japanese Popular Culture, Westport: Greenwood Press. LÉVI-STRAUSS C. (1976), Structural Anthropology Vol. 2, (tr.) Monique Layton,
  • New York; Basic Books. McCARTHY H. (1999), Hayao Miyazaki, Master of Japanese Animation,
  • Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press. MIYAZAKI, H. (1997), Shuppatsuten (Points of Departure) 1979-1996, Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten.
  • NEALE S. (2000), Genre and Hollywood, London: Routledge.
  • PROPP, V. (1924/1968), Morphology of the Folk Tale(tr.) Laurence Scott. Austin:
  • University of Texas Press. PROPP, V. (1984), Theory and History of Folklore, (ed.) Anatoly Liberman,
  • Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. PYM, J. (2007) (ed.), Time Out Film Guide; review of Kiki’s Delivery Service by Nick Bradshaw, p.612.
  • SMOODIN H. (1994) (ed.), Disney Discourse, New York: Routledge.
  • TREDELL, N. (2002), Cinemas of the Mind, Cambridge, UK: Icon Books.
  • WELLS, P. (1998) (ed.), Art and Animation, London: Academy Group.
  • WOLLEN P. (1982), Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter Strategies,
  • London: New Left Books.

Miyazaki ve Batı: Çocuklar için Yapılan Animasyon Filmlerindeki Anlatım Yapısının Karşılaştırmalı bir Analizi

Year 2008, Issue 9, 11 - 30, 01.04.2008

Abstract

Bu makale, 1994 ve 2006 yıllan arasında Disney ve Dreamworks gibi yapım şirketleri tarafından çocuklar için yapılmış olan animasyon filmleri arasından seçilen filmlerin analizini yapmakta ve sonuçları dünya çapında bir seyirciye sahip yegane Japon animasyon filmleri olan Hayao Miyazaki tarafından yazılıp yönetilmiş ve yapımcılığını Studio Ghibli'nin yaptığı filmler ile paralel bir şekilde analiz ederek karşılaştırmaktadır. Bu incelemede Rus halkbilimci Vladimir Propp'un yaklaşımının yönlendirici-liğiyle Propp'un "fonksiyon" olarak adlandırdığı önemli anlatım öğeleri tespit edilmiş ve sınıflandırılmıştır. Sınıflandırmanın sonuçları "batı" animasyon örneklerinde yaygın olan genel öğelerin Stüdyo Ghibli filmlerinin anlatımlarının büyük kısmında yer almadığını ortaya koymaktadır. Ayrıca bu inceleme, iki grup filmin ideolojik amaç açısından farklılığını da ortaya çıkarmaktadır: birkaç istisna dışında batı örnekleri, tipik hoşgörü ve dayanışma idealleriyle bir topluluk ya da ailenin önceliğini vurgularken Ghibli yapımları, geniş biçimde ekolojik bir bağlam içinde birçok açıdan daha geleneksel olan iyi ve kötü temsilcileri arasındaki mücadeleye bağlı kalmaktadır. Bu bulgulardan elde edilen çıkarımlar, geleneksel anlatım araçları ve çocuklar için yaratıcı sinemasal hikâye anlatımı arasındaki ilişki açısından incelenmiştir.

References

  • BORDWELL, D. (1989), Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
  • BENDAZZI, G. (1996), Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Animation,
  • Bloomington: Indiana University Press. BROPHY, P. (1994) (ed.), Kaboom Explosive Animation from America and Japan, Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art.
  • FORGACS, D. (1992), Disney Animation and the Business of Childhood in Screen 3:4 pp. 361-374.
  • GIROUX, H. (1998), 'Are Disney Movies Good for Your Kids?', in Steinberg, S.R. and Kincheloe, J.L. (eds.) Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of
  • Childhood, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. GLEDHILL C. (1999): History of Genre Criticism in Cook and Bernink (eds). The Cinema Book, London: British Film Institute pp. 137-147.
  • GREIMAS, A.J. (1966), Sémantique Structurelle, Recherche de Méthode, Paris: Librarie Larousse.
  • HARVEY D. (1989), The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • KATO, H. (1989), Japanese Popular Culture Reconsidered in Powers and Kato
  • (eds.) Handbook of Japanese Popular Culture, Westport: Greenwood Press. LÉVI-STRAUSS C. (1976), Structural Anthropology Vol. 2, (tr.) Monique Layton,
  • New York; Basic Books. McCARTHY H. (1999), Hayao Miyazaki, Master of Japanese Animation,
  • Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press. MIYAZAKI, H. (1997), Shuppatsuten (Points of Departure) 1979-1996, Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten.
  • NEALE S. (2000), Genre and Hollywood, London: Routledge.
  • PROPP, V. (1924/1968), Morphology of the Folk Tale(tr.) Laurence Scott. Austin:
  • University of Texas Press. PROPP, V. (1984), Theory and History of Folklore, (ed.) Anatoly Liberman,
  • Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. PYM, J. (2007) (ed.), Time Out Film Guide; review of Kiki’s Delivery Service by Nick Bradshaw, p.612.
  • SMOODIN H. (1994) (ed.), Disney Discourse, New York: Routledge.
  • TREDELL, N. (2002), Cinemas of the Mind, Cambridge, UK: Icon Books.
  • WELLS, P. (1998) (ed.), Art and Animation, London: Academy Group.
  • WOLLEN P. (1982), Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter Strategies,
  • London: New Left Books.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Sibel Çelik NORMAN This is me

Publication Date April 1, 2008
Published in Issue Year 2008, Volume , Issue 9

Cite

APA Norman, Y. D. D. S. Ç. (2008). Miyazaki ve Batı: Çocuklar için Yapılan Animasyon Filmlerindeki Anlatım Yapısının Karşılaştırmalı bir Analizi . Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi , (9) , 11-30 . Retrieved from http://iletisimdergisi.gsu.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/7370/96486

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