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Uluslararası Müdahaleye Sinemasal Bir Eleştiri: Tarafsız Bölge

Year 2006, Volume , Issue 4, 71 - 88, 01.02.2006

Abstract

Sinema kendine has araçlarla tarihi yeniden üretir. Bunu belgesellerle olduğu kadar kurmacalarla da yapar. Bu çalışmada, Tarafsız Bölge filminde yer alan kurmaca öğelerinin Bosna Savaşı'yla ilgili gerçeklerin aktarılmasına nasıl aracılık ettiği incelenecektir. Filmin yönetmeni Danis Tanovic'in konuyla ilgili bakış açısını aktarmak için hangi yollara başvurduğu, seyirciyi nasıl yönlendirdiği ve savaşın insani boyutunu vurgulamak için kullandığı sinema dili incelemenin önemli bir bölümünü oluşturacaktır. Yönetmenin asıl eleştiri hedefi olan Birleşmiş Milletler'in bu savaştaki rolü, filmdeki temsillerden hareketle tartışılacak, konuyla ilgili tarihsel açıklamalara yer verilecektir. Somali'den Kosova'ya, Birleşmiş Milletler'in uluslararası müdahalelerdeki yetersizliklerinin sebep ve sonuçlarıyla Medya ve Birleşmiş Milletler Koruma Gücü arasındaki ilişkiler de yine filmden örneklerin ışığında dile getirilecektir.

References

  • BERKOWITZ Bruce D. (1994), "Rules of Engagement for UN peacekeeping forces in Bosnia", Orbis, 38(4):365(12).
  • BERTHOLON Delphine (2001), "No Man’s Land", Cahiers du Cinéma, Eylül 2001
  • BİRLEfiMİfi MİLLETLER MÜLTECİ AJANSI'NIN BOSNA-HERSEK RAPORU, Ocak 2005, http://www.unhcr.org
  • BROADSTONE Herman C., Major (USMC) (1996), "Rules of engagement in military operations other than war, from Beirut to Bosnia", CSC.
  • CANUEL, BEAUREGARD, COUTARD, (2002). Les médias et la guerre : de au World Trade Center, Montréal, Éditions du Méridien.
  • CHARUAU Jean-Marie (2004),"Entretien avec Danis Tanovic", http://ecrinet.net/ projectibles/article.php3?id_article=33.
  • CLAUSEWITZ Carl von (1955), De la guerre, Paris, Les éditions de Minuit.
  • DISTER Alain (2002), Rock Çağı, Çev. Renan Akman, İstanbul, Yapı Kredi Yayıncılık
  • DOBBIE Charles (1994), "A Concept for Post-Cold War Peacekeeping", Survival (3)
  • FERRO Marc (1995), Sinema ve Tarih, Çev. Turhan Ilgaz, Hülya Tufan, İstanbul, Kesit Yayıncılık.
  • GAUTHIER Guy (1991), "Christian Metz à la trace", dans Guy Hennebelle, ed.,
  • Histoire des théories du cinéma, Cinémaction, no. 60, Paris. GIZELIS T.-I. & KOSEK K.E. (2005), "Why humanitarian interventions succeed or fail: The role of local participation", Cooperation and Conflict, vol.40.
  • HARRISON Benjamin T. (2005), "The fog of war: Eleven lessons from the life of
  • Robert S. McNamara", The Journal of American History, vol.92, no.3 HOLZGREFE J.L. & KEOHANE Robert O. (2003), Humanitarian intervention:
  • Ethical, legal and political dilemmas, Cambridge, Cambridge University Pres. ICISS (International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty) Report (2001), The Responsibility to Protect (supplementary volume), International
  • Development Research Center, Ottawa. JAMES Nick (2001), "No Man’s Land", Sight and Saund, Temmuz 2001.
  • KASIM Kamer (2004), "ABD Ortadoğu’da yumuflak gücünü kullanmalıdır",
  • Turkish Weekly, http://www.turkishweekly.net/turkce/makale.php?id=9 KENAR Nesrin (2005), Bir dönemin perde arkası: Yugoslavya, Ankara, Palme Yayıncılık.
  • LEBOVIC James (2004), "Uniting for peace? Democracies and UN peace operations after the Cold War", Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol.48, no.6.
  • LETORT Grégory, SAUVAGE Julien (2005), "Un pays miné par la guerre", www.humanite.fr, 30. 08. 2005.
  • LEVY Bernard-Henri & FERARI Alain (1994), Bosna (Belgesel), Fransa.
  • MAGNY Joel (1991), "Le cinéma au service de l’histoire", dans Guy Hennebelle, ed., Histoire des théories du cinéma, Cinémaction, no. 60, Paris.
  • MOHAMED Saira (2005), "From keeping peace to building peace: A proposal for a revitalized United Nations trusteeship council", Columbia Law Review, vol.105
  • NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE COUNCIL (NIC) (2004), Mapping The Global Future:
  • Report of The National Intelligence Council’s 2020 Project.
  • NINEY François (2000), L’épreuve du réel à l’écran, Essai sur le principe de réalité documentaire, Bruxelles, De Boeck Université.
  • ODIN Roger (1984), "Film documentaire, lecture documentarisante", Cinémas et
  • Réalités, Travaux XLI, CIEREC, Université de St. Etienne. SCHÖRNİQ Niklas & LEMBCKE Alexander C. (2006), "The vision of war without casualties: On the use of casualty aversion in armament advertisements",
  • Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol.50. STEPHENS Dale (2005), "The lawful use of force by peacekeeping forces: the tactical imperative", International Peacekeeping, vol.12, no.2.
  • TÜRKMEN Füsun (2006), İnsan Haklarının Yeni Boyutu: İnsancıl Müdahale,
  • Okumufl Adam Yayınları, İstanbul. U⁄UR TANRIÖVER Hülya (2004), "Ce film nous a fait du bien, une étude de cas sur la réception filmique", İleti-fl-im, no. 1, İstanbul.

Uluslararası Müdahaleye Sinemasal Bir Eleştiri: Tarafsız Bölge

Year 2006, Volume , Issue 4, 71 - 88, 01.02.2006

Abstract

The cinema recreates the history by it's own proper means. It can realise that by the fictions as well as by the documentaries. In this work, the fiction elements of the film "No Man's Land" will be analysed according to the question: "How it could serve to transfer the realities about the Bosnian War". Concerning the reality that the director can not produce his films independent from the common memories and consciousness of his society, the most important part of this analysis will figure out the way of thinking of Danis Tanovic, how he affects the spectators and the cinematographic language that he uses to emphasize the humanitarian dimension of the war. The role of the United Nations which is the major target of the critics will be discussed by analysing the symbols in the film with the presentation of the historical explanations. The causes and the consequences of the insufficient interventions of United Nations Protection Force which was also discussed by the public opinion, will be mentioned by the enlightenment of the film sequences. On the other hand, the satirized relationship between the media and the United Nations Protection Force, will form the other basis of this research.

References

  • BERKOWITZ Bruce D. (1994), "Rules of Engagement for UN peacekeeping forces in Bosnia", Orbis, 38(4):365(12).
  • BERTHOLON Delphine (2001), "No Man’s Land", Cahiers du Cinéma, Eylül 2001
  • BİRLEfiMİfi MİLLETLER MÜLTECİ AJANSI'NIN BOSNA-HERSEK RAPORU, Ocak 2005, http://www.unhcr.org
  • BROADSTONE Herman C., Major (USMC) (1996), "Rules of engagement in military operations other than war, from Beirut to Bosnia", CSC.
  • CANUEL, BEAUREGARD, COUTARD, (2002). Les médias et la guerre : de au World Trade Center, Montréal, Éditions du Méridien.
  • CHARUAU Jean-Marie (2004),"Entretien avec Danis Tanovic", http://ecrinet.net/ projectibles/article.php3?id_article=33.
  • CLAUSEWITZ Carl von (1955), De la guerre, Paris, Les éditions de Minuit.
  • DISTER Alain (2002), Rock Çağı, Çev. Renan Akman, İstanbul, Yapı Kredi Yayıncılık
  • DOBBIE Charles (1994), "A Concept for Post-Cold War Peacekeeping", Survival (3)
  • FERRO Marc (1995), Sinema ve Tarih, Çev. Turhan Ilgaz, Hülya Tufan, İstanbul, Kesit Yayıncılık.
  • GAUTHIER Guy (1991), "Christian Metz à la trace", dans Guy Hennebelle, ed.,
  • Histoire des théories du cinéma, Cinémaction, no. 60, Paris. GIZELIS T.-I. & KOSEK K.E. (2005), "Why humanitarian interventions succeed or fail: The role of local participation", Cooperation and Conflict, vol.40.
  • HARRISON Benjamin T. (2005), "The fog of war: Eleven lessons from the life of
  • Robert S. McNamara", The Journal of American History, vol.92, no.3 HOLZGREFE J.L. & KEOHANE Robert O. (2003), Humanitarian intervention:
  • Ethical, legal and political dilemmas, Cambridge, Cambridge University Pres. ICISS (International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty) Report (2001), The Responsibility to Protect (supplementary volume), International
  • Development Research Center, Ottawa. JAMES Nick (2001), "No Man’s Land", Sight and Saund, Temmuz 2001.
  • KASIM Kamer (2004), "ABD Ortadoğu’da yumuflak gücünü kullanmalıdır",
  • Turkish Weekly, http://www.turkishweekly.net/turkce/makale.php?id=9 KENAR Nesrin (2005), Bir dönemin perde arkası: Yugoslavya, Ankara, Palme Yayıncılık.
  • LEBOVIC James (2004), "Uniting for peace? Democracies and UN peace operations after the Cold War", Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol.48, no.6.
  • LETORT Grégory, SAUVAGE Julien (2005), "Un pays miné par la guerre", www.humanite.fr, 30. 08. 2005.
  • LEVY Bernard-Henri & FERARI Alain (1994), Bosna (Belgesel), Fransa.
  • MAGNY Joel (1991), "Le cinéma au service de l’histoire", dans Guy Hennebelle, ed., Histoire des théories du cinéma, Cinémaction, no. 60, Paris.
  • MOHAMED Saira (2005), "From keeping peace to building peace: A proposal for a revitalized United Nations trusteeship council", Columbia Law Review, vol.105
  • NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE COUNCIL (NIC) (2004), Mapping The Global Future:
  • Report of The National Intelligence Council’s 2020 Project.
  • NINEY François (2000), L’épreuve du réel à l’écran, Essai sur le principe de réalité documentaire, Bruxelles, De Boeck Université.
  • ODIN Roger (1984), "Film documentaire, lecture documentarisante", Cinémas et
  • Réalités, Travaux XLI, CIEREC, Université de St. Etienne. SCHÖRNİQ Niklas & LEMBCKE Alexander C. (2006), "The vision of war without casualties: On the use of casualty aversion in armament advertisements",
  • Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol.50. STEPHENS Dale (2005), "The lawful use of force by peacekeeping forces: the tactical imperative", International Peacekeeping, vol.12, no.2.
  • TÜRKMEN Füsun (2006), İnsan Haklarının Yeni Boyutu: İnsancıl Müdahale,
  • Okumufl Adam Yayınları, İstanbul. U⁄UR TANRIÖVER Hülya (2004), "Ce film nous a fait du bien, une étude de cas sur la réception filmique", İleti-fl-im, no. 1, İstanbul.

Uluslararası Müdahaleye Sinemasal Bir Eleştiri: Tarafsız Bölge

Year 2006, Volume , Issue 4, 71 - 88, 01.02.2006

Abstract

Le cinéma reproduit l'histoire par ses propres moyens. Il est aussi possible de la reproduire par les fictions que par les documentaires. Dans cet article, on envisage d'étudier comment les éléments de la fiction du film No Man's Land servent à transférer la réalité de la Guerre de Bosnie par l'intermédiaire de l'analyse du film. En admettant le fait que le cinéaste réalise ses films en fonction de la mémoire collective de la société dont il est issu, les moyens utilisés par Danis Tanovic afin de transférer son point de vue sur le sujet, les méthodes par lesquelles il arrive à influencer les spectateurs et le langage cinématographique dont il se sert pour accentuer la dimension humanitaire de la guerre formeront une grande partie de la recherche. Le rôle des Nations Unies dans cette guerre forme le principal point de contestation ; ceci sera discuté par des représentations diffusées dans le film et des explications historiques sur le sujet seront également introduites. Du Somalie au Kosovo, la discussion au niveau de l'opinion publique internationale des raisons et des conséquences de l'inefficacité des interventions internationales des Nations Unies seront étudiées à l'aide des exemples issus du film. De plus, les relations entre le Média international et la Force de Protection des Nations Unies (FORPRONU) formeront également un autre niveau d'analyse dans l'étude du film.

References

  • BERKOWITZ Bruce D. (1994), "Rules of Engagement for UN peacekeeping forces in Bosnia", Orbis, 38(4):365(12).
  • BERTHOLON Delphine (2001), "No Man’s Land", Cahiers du Cinéma, Eylül 2001
  • BİRLEfiMİfi MİLLETLER MÜLTECİ AJANSI'NIN BOSNA-HERSEK RAPORU, Ocak 2005, http://www.unhcr.org
  • BROADSTONE Herman C., Major (USMC) (1996), "Rules of engagement in military operations other than war, from Beirut to Bosnia", CSC.
  • CANUEL, BEAUREGARD, COUTARD, (2002). Les médias et la guerre : de au World Trade Center, Montréal, Éditions du Méridien.
  • CHARUAU Jean-Marie (2004),"Entretien avec Danis Tanovic", http://ecrinet.net/ projectibles/article.php3?id_article=33.
  • CLAUSEWITZ Carl von (1955), De la guerre, Paris, Les éditions de Minuit.
  • DISTER Alain (2002), Rock Çağı, Çev. Renan Akman, İstanbul, Yapı Kredi Yayıncılık
  • DOBBIE Charles (1994), "A Concept for Post-Cold War Peacekeeping", Survival (3)
  • FERRO Marc (1995), Sinema ve Tarih, Çev. Turhan Ilgaz, Hülya Tufan, İstanbul, Kesit Yayıncılık.
  • GAUTHIER Guy (1991), "Christian Metz à la trace", dans Guy Hennebelle, ed.,
  • Histoire des théories du cinéma, Cinémaction, no. 60, Paris. GIZELIS T.-I. & KOSEK K.E. (2005), "Why humanitarian interventions succeed or fail: The role of local participation", Cooperation and Conflict, vol.40.
  • HARRISON Benjamin T. (2005), "The fog of war: Eleven lessons from the life of
  • Robert S. McNamara", The Journal of American History, vol.92, no.3 HOLZGREFE J.L. & KEOHANE Robert O. (2003), Humanitarian intervention:
  • Ethical, legal and political dilemmas, Cambridge, Cambridge University Pres. ICISS (International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty) Report (2001), The Responsibility to Protect (supplementary volume), International
  • Development Research Center, Ottawa. JAMES Nick (2001), "No Man’s Land", Sight and Saund, Temmuz 2001.
  • KASIM Kamer (2004), "ABD Ortadoğu’da yumuflak gücünü kullanmalıdır",
  • Turkish Weekly, http://www.turkishweekly.net/turkce/makale.php?id=9 KENAR Nesrin (2005), Bir dönemin perde arkası: Yugoslavya, Ankara, Palme Yayıncılık.
  • LEBOVIC James (2004), "Uniting for peace? Democracies and UN peace operations after the Cold War", Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol.48, no.6.
  • LETORT Grégory, SAUVAGE Julien (2005), "Un pays miné par la guerre", www.humanite.fr, 30. 08. 2005.
  • LEVY Bernard-Henri & FERARI Alain (1994), Bosna (Belgesel), Fransa.
  • MAGNY Joel (1991), "Le cinéma au service de l’histoire", dans Guy Hennebelle, ed., Histoire des théories du cinéma, Cinémaction, no. 60, Paris.
  • MOHAMED Saira (2005), "From keeping peace to building peace: A proposal for a revitalized United Nations trusteeship council", Columbia Law Review, vol.105
  • NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE COUNCIL (NIC) (2004), Mapping The Global Future:
  • Report of The National Intelligence Council’s 2020 Project.
  • NINEY François (2000), L’épreuve du réel à l’écran, Essai sur le principe de réalité documentaire, Bruxelles, De Boeck Université.
  • ODIN Roger (1984), "Film documentaire, lecture documentarisante", Cinémas et
  • Réalités, Travaux XLI, CIEREC, Université de St. Etienne. SCHÖRNİQ Niklas & LEMBCKE Alexander C. (2006), "The vision of war without casualties: On the use of casualty aversion in armament advertisements",
  • Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol.50. STEPHENS Dale (2005), "The lawful use of force by peacekeeping forces: the tactical imperative", International Peacekeeping, vol.12, no.2.
  • TÜRKMEN Füsun (2006), İnsan Haklarının Yeni Boyutu: İnsancıl Müdahale,
  • Okumufl Adam Yayınları, İstanbul. U⁄UR TANRIÖVER Hülya (2004), "Ce film nous a fait du bien, une étude de cas sur la réception filmique", İleti-fl-im, no. 1, İstanbul.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ar. Gör. Gülsenem GÜN This is me


Ar. Gör. Menent SAVAŞ This is me

Publication Date February 1, 2006
Published in Issue Year 2006, Volume , Issue 4

Cite

APA Gün, A. G. G. & Savaş, A. G. M. (2006). Uluslararası Müdahaleye Sinemasal Bir Eleştiri: Tarafsız Bölge . Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi , (4) , 71-88 . Retrieved from https://iletisimdergisi.gsu.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/7375/96554

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