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Nefret Söylemi Literatürü için İki Yeni Terim Önerisi: “Nefret Söylemi*” ve “Nefret Edimi”

Year 2014, Volume , Issue 20, 53 - 75, 24.10.2014
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.47917

Abstract

Bu makalenin amacı, Web 2.0 döneminde “nefret söylemi” kavramının
yeniden düşünülmesi gerektiğini ortaya koymak ve söz edimleri kuramı”nı nefret
söylemi literatürüne uygulayarak iki yeni kavram önermektir, “nefret söylemi” ve
“nefret edimi.” Kavramın yeniden düşünülmesi ihtiyacı, genellikle nefret söylemi
analizlerinde kullanılan eleştirel söylem çözümlemesi (ESÇ) metodolojisini
incelemekten kaynaklanmıştır. ESÇ her ne kadar geleneksel medyadaki nefret
söylemi analizlerinde oldukça etkili bir yöntem olsa da, bu yöntemi Web 2.0
döneminin doğası gereği çok büyük miktarlarda veri içermesi nedeniyle sosyal
medya ortamlarında üretilen nefret söylemi analizleri için kullanmak oldukça
zordur. Bu nedenle bu iki yeni terimin sosyal medya üzerinden yayılan nefret
söylemiyle mücadelede daha pratik yeni yöntemler bulunmasında faydalı
olacağına inanılmaktadır. 

References

  • 2011 Digital Terrorism & Hate Report Launched at Museum of Tolerance New
  • York (2011), Retrieved 08.14.2012 from http://www.wiesenthal.com/site/apps/ nlnet/content2.aspx?c=lsKWLbPJLnF&b=4441467&ct=9141065.
  • AKIN Altuğ ve diğerleri (2010), Yeni Medyada Nefret Söylemi, İstanbul, Türkiye: Kalkedon Yayınları.
  • ANDERSON Benedict (1991), Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London, UK: Verso Publishing.
  • Article 19. United Nations (UN), Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (10 December 1948), Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www.un.org/en/ documents/udhr/index.shtml#a19.
  • Article 29(2). UN, UDHR. Retrieved 07.19.2012 from http://www.un.org/en/ documents/udhr/index.shtml#a29, Article 10(1). Council of Europe, European Convention on Human Rights (4
  • November 1950), Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www.echr.coe.int/NR/ rdonlyres/D5CC24A7-DC13-4318-B457-5C9014916D7A/0/CONVENTION_ENG_ WEB.pdf.
  • Article 10(2). Council of Europe, ECHR. Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www. echr.coe.int/NR/rdonlyres/D5CC24A7-DC13-4318-B457-5C9014916D7A/0/
  • CONVENTION_ENG_WEB.pdf. Article 19(2). UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (16 December 1966). Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www2. ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm#art19.
  • Article 19(3). UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (16 December 1966. Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www2. ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm#art19.
  • Article 20(1)(2). UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (16 December 1966). Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http:// wwwohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm#art20.
  • Article 4. Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) (12 December 1965). Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www2.ohchr. org/english/law/cerd.htm#4.
  • AUSTIN Langshaw John (1978), How To Do Things With Words, Harvard University Press.
  • BAHÇELİ Devlet, ‘Ağlama Sırası Onlarda’ Diyen Soysuz, (25 October 2011).
  • Retrieved 10.30.2011 from http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/id/25291872/
  • WODAK Ruth (2001), “What CDA is about - a summary of its history, important concepts and its development” in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, Eds.: Wodak R. & Meyer, M., U.S.A: Sage Publications.
  • WODAK Ruth, DE CILLIA Rudolf, REISIGL Martin, LIEBHART Karin (2009), Discursive Construction of Social Reality, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Introduction de deux nouveaux termes en literature de discours de la haine (discours haineux): “Discours de la haine et l’acte de discours haineux”

Year 2014, Volume , Issue 20, 53 - 75, 24.10.2014
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.47917

Abstract

L’objectif de cette étude est de mettre en évidence la nécessité de
revisiter le concept de “discours de haine” à l’ère de Web 2.0 et d’introduire
deux nouveaux termes avec l’aide d’application de la théorie de l’acte de parole,
ce qui est le “discours de haine” et l’ “acte de discours de haine”. Le besoin
de cette révision naît de l’examen de la méthodologie de l’analyse critique du
discours (ACD) utilisée pour analyser le discours de haine. Alors que l’ACD
parait tout à fait efficace pour l’analyse du discours de haine dans les médias
traditionnels, il peut être plutôt difficile de l’appliquer dans les médias sociaux
à cause de la quantité énorme des données en Web 2.0. Par conséquent, on
s’accorde à dire que ces deux nouveaux termes peuvent être utiles pour trouver
des moyens nouveaux et plus pratiques afin de se battre contre la propagation
du discours de haine dans les médias sociaux.

References

  • 2011 Digital Terrorism & Hate Report Launched at Museum of Tolerance New
  • York (2011), Retrieved 08.14.2012 from http://www.wiesenthal.com/site/apps/ nlnet/content2.aspx?c=lsKWLbPJLnF&b=4441467&ct=9141065.
  • AKIN Altuğ ve diğerleri (2010), Yeni Medyada Nefret Söylemi, İstanbul, Türkiye: Kalkedon Yayınları.
  • ANDERSON Benedict (1991), Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London, UK: Verso Publishing.
  • Article 19. United Nations (UN), Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (10 December 1948), Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www.un.org/en/ documents/udhr/index.shtml#a19.
  • Article 29(2). UN, UDHR. Retrieved 07.19.2012 from http://www.un.org/en/ documents/udhr/index.shtml#a29, Article 10(1). Council of Europe, European Convention on Human Rights (4
  • November 1950), Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www.echr.coe.int/NR/ rdonlyres/D5CC24A7-DC13-4318-B457-5C9014916D7A/0/CONVENTION_ENG_ WEB.pdf.
  • Article 10(2). Council of Europe, ECHR. Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www. echr.coe.int/NR/rdonlyres/D5CC24A7-DC13-4318-B457-5C9014916D7A/0/
  • CONVENTION_ENG_WEB.pdf. Article 19(2). UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (16 December 1966). Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www2. ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm#art19.
  • Article 19(3). UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (16 December 1966. Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www2. ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm#art19.
  • Article 20(1)(2). UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (16 December 1966). Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http:// wwwohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm#art20.
  • Article 4. Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) (12 December 1965). Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www2.ohchr. org/english/law/cerd.htm#4.
  • AUSTIN Langshaw John (1978), How To Do Things With Words, Harvard University Press.
  • BAHÇELİ Devlet, ‘Ağlama Sırası Onlarda’ Diyen Soysuz, (25 October 2011).
  • Retrieved 10.30.2011 from http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/id/25291872/
  • WODAK Ruth (2001), “What CDA is about - a summary of its history, important concepts and its development” in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, Eds.: Wodak R. & Meyer, M., U.S.A: Sage Publications.
  • WODAK Ruth, DE CILLIA Rudolf, REISIGL Martin, LIEBHART Karin (2009), Discursive Construction of Social Reality, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Introducing Two New Terms into the Literature of Hate Speech: “Hate Discourse” and “Hate Speech Act” Application of “speech act theory” into hate speech studies in the era of Web 2.0

Year 2014, Volume , Issue 20, 53 - 75, 24.10.2014
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.47917

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to explain the need for a revision of the term “hate speech” in the era of Web 2.0 and to introduce two new terms into the literature of hate speech with the help of application of “speech act theory”, that is “hate discourse” and “hate speech act.” The need for the revision arises from the examination of the methodology used to analyze hate speech, which is critical discourse analysis (CDA). Even though CDA seems fairly sufficient for hate speech analysis in traditional media, it could be rather difficult to apply into the analysis of hate speech disseminated in social media because of the nature of the tremendous data found in Web 2.0. Therefore it is believed that these two new terms could be beneficial to find more practical and new ways to combat against hate speech disseminated through social media.

References

  • 2011 Digital Terrorism & Hate Report Launched at Museum of Tolerance New
  • York (2011), Retrieved 08.14.2012 from http://www.wiesenthal.com/site/apps/ nlnet/content2.aspx?c=lsKWLbPJLnF&b=4441467&ct=9141065.
  • AKIN Altuğ ve diğerleri (2010), Yeni Medyada Nefret Söylemi, İstanbul, Türkiye: Kalkedon Yayınları.
  • ANDERSON Benedict (1991), Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London, UK: Verso Publishing.
  • Article 19. United Nations (UN), Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (10 December 1948), Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www.un.org/en/ documents/udhr/index.shtml#a19.
  • Article 29(2). UN, UDHR. Retrieved 07.19.2012 from http://www.un.org/en/ documents/udhr/index.shtml#a29, Article 10(1). Council of Europe, European Convention on Human Rights (4
  • November 1950), Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www.echr.coe.int/NR/ rdonlyres/D5CC24A7-DC13-4318-B457-5C9014916D7A/0/CONVENTION_ENG_ WEB.pdf.
  • Article 10(2). Council of Europe, ECHR. Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www. echr.coe.int/NR/rdonlyres/D5CC24A7-DC13-4318-B457-5C9014916D7A/0/
  • CONVENTION_ENG_WEB.pdf. Article 19(2). UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (16 December 1966). Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www2. ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm#art19.
  • Article 19(3). UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (16 December 1966. Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www2. ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm#art19.
  • Article 20(1)(2). UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (16 December 1966). Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http:// wwwohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm#art20.
  • Article 4. Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) (12 December 1965). Retrieved 07.01.2012 from http://www2.ohchr. org/english/law/cerd.htm#4.
  • AUSTIN Langshaw John (1978), How To Do Things With Words, Harvard University Press.
  • BAHÇELİ Devlet, ‘Ağlama Sırası Onlarda’ Diyen Soysuz, (25 October 2011).
  • Retrieved 10.30.2011 from http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/id/25291872/
  • WODAK Ruth (2001), “What CDA is about - a summary of its history, important concepts and its development” in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, Eds.: Wodak R. & Meyer, M., U.S.A: Sage Publications.
  • WODAK Ruth, DE CILLIA Rudolf, REISIGL Martin, LIEBHART Karin (2009), Discursive Construction of Social Reality, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Zeynep ÖZARSLAN This is me

Publication Date October 24, 2014
Published in Issue Year 2014, Volume , Issue 20

Cite

APA Özarslan, Y. D. D. Z. (2014). Introducing Two New Terms into the Literature of Hate Speech: “Hate Discourse” and “Hate Speech Act” Application of “speech act theory” into hate speech studies in the era of Web 2.0 . Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi , (20) , 53-75 . DOI: 10.16878/gsuilet.47917

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