Research Article
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Health and Its Discontents: Health Opinion Leaders’ Social Media Discourses and Medicalization of Health

Year 2014, Volume , Issue 21, 103 - 127, 08.12.2014
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.96677

Abstract

Concerns regarding body and health colonize nearly all aspects of contemporary societies. Citizens are exposed to discourses disseminated from innumerable sources, on living a healthier, happier life and attaining a more desirable body. The common point for these discourses is their role in medicalization and individualization of health, i.e. approaching natural cycles of life as diseases and ignoring the social determinants of health. Health professionals, or “health opinion leaders”, occupy a strategic and advantageous position in this process. Most recently, web 1.0 and web 2.0 environments, especially social media outlets come forward among these sources. Social media provides health opinion leaders with opportunities to continuous and easy opinion/idea dissemination, and to mutual interaction with followers. Definition and promotion of diseases and fear; lifestyles and habits; beauty; longevity; performance and personal development; and naturalness lie at the center * The article is based on findings of Social Media Opinion Leadership Research supervised by Prof. Dr. Yasemin İnceoğlu with researchers Assist. Prof. Dr. Burak Özçetin, Meltem Gökmen and Saygın Vedat Alkurt. The project, coded 12.300.002, is funded by Galatasaray University Scientific Research Projects Fund. The project team would like to express their gratitude to Galatasaray University SRP Fund for their support and contribution / Makaleye kaynaklık eden Sosyal Medya Kanaat Önderliği Araştırması Prof. Dr. Yasemin İnceoğlu tarafından yürütülmüş ve Yrd. Doç. Dr. Burak Özçetin, Meltem Gökmen ve Saygın Vedat Alkurt projede araştırmacı olarak görev almıştır. 12.300.002 kodlu bu proje, Galatasaray Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Fonu tarafından desteklenmiştir. Galatasaray Üniversitesi BAP Fonu’na destek ve katkılarından ötürü teşekkür ederiz.of their discursive strategy. This article suggests that social media discourses of health professionals on health and body must be considered within the context of medicalization and commodification of health in contemporary societies, and within the context of neoliberal governmentality.

References

  • ANGELL Marcia (2008), “Industry-Sponsored Clinical Research”, JAMA, 300(9), pp. 1069-71.
  • ATAAY Faruk (2006), Neoliberalizm ve Devletin Yeniden Yapılandırılması, Ankara, De Ki.
  • ATABEK Gülseren, ATABEK Ümit and BİLGE Deniz (2013), “Sağlık Haberlerinde Dönüşüm: 1970-2010 Yılları Arasında Hürriyet Gazetesinde Sağlık Haberleri”, in Kapitalizm Sağlığa Zararlıdır, edited by Osman Elbek, İstanbul: HayyKitap, pp. 113-33.
  • AYANOĞLU Yıldız, ATAN Murat and BEYLİK Umut (2010), “Hastanelerde Veri Zarflama Analizi (VZA) Yöntemiyle Finansal Performans Ölçümü ve Değerlendirilmesi”, Sağlıkta Performans ve Kalite Dergisi, 1(2), pp. 40-63. BAUDRILLARD Jean (1998), The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, London, Sage.
  • BAUMAN Zygmunt (2000), Modernity and the Holocaust, Cornell, Cornell University Press.
  • BOTTLES Kent (2009), “Patients, Doctors and Health 2.0 Tools”, PEJ, 22-25, July-August.
  • BOURDIEU Pierre (1996), On Television, New York, The New Press. CANGUILHEM Georges (1991), The Normal and the Pathological, New York, Zone Books.
  • CASTEL Robert (1991), “From Dangerousness to Risk”, in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 281-98.
  • CHEEK Julianne (2004), “At the Margins? Discourse Analysis and Qualitative Research”, Qualitative Health Research, 14(8), pp. 1140-50.
  • COBURN David and COBURN Elaine S (2007) “Health and Health Inequalities in a Neo-Liberal Global World”, in The Economics of Health Equity, edited by Di McIntyre and Gavin Mooney, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 13-36.
  • ÇINARLI İnci (2008), Sağlık İletişimi ve Medya, Ankara, Nobel.
  • DELIBAŞ Kayhan (2013), “Sağlığa İlişkin Korkular: Güven Erozyonu Bağlamında Sağlık Korkularını Anlamlandırmak”, in Kapitalizm Sağlığa Zararlıdır, edited by Osman Elbek. Istanbul, HayyKitap, pp. 101-13.
  • VAN DIJK Teun A (1989), “Structures of Discourse and Structures of Power”, in Communication Yearbook 12, edited by J. A. Anderson, California, Sage, pp. 18-59.
  • DILLON Michael (2007), “Governing through Contingency: The Security of Biopolitical Governance”, Political Geography, 26(1), pp. 41-47. ELLIOTT Carl (2010), White Coat, Black Hat: Adventures on the Dark Side of Medicine, Boston, Beacon Press.
  • ERCAN Fuat (2013), “Meta Neleri İçerir? Sağlık Hizmetlerinin Metalaşması”, in Kapitalizm Sağlığa Zararlıdır, edited by Osman Elbek, Istanbul, HayyKitap, pp. 15-41.
  • FAIRCLOUGH Norman (2001) “Critical Discourse Analysis as a Method in Social Scientific Research”, in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, edited by Ruth Wodak and Michael Meyer, California, Sage, pp. 121-39.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1977), Discipline and Punish: The Birth of Prison, New York, Vintage Books.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1978), History of Sexuality Vol 1: An Introduction, New York: Pantheon Books.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1981), “Omnes et Singulatim: Towards a Criticism of ‘Political Reason’”, in The Tanner Lectures on Human Values v. II, edited by S. McMurrin, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, pp. 223-54.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1982), “The Subject and Power”, Critical Inquiry, 8.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1991), “Governmentality”, in The Foucault effect: Studies in Governmentality, vol. 14, edited by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 87-104.
  • FOUCAULT Michel, (2002), The Archeology of Knowledge, London and New York, Routledge.
  • FUREDI Frank (2002), Culture of Fear: Risk-Taking and the Morality of Low Expectation, London and New York, Continuum.
  • GAMBETTI, Zeynep (2012), “Foucault’tan Agamben’e Olağanüstü Halin Sıradanlığına Dair Bir Yanıt Denemesi”, Cogito (70-71), pp. 1-18. GARLAND David (2001), The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
  • HALL Joanne M. (2011), “Introduction to Three Conceptual Explorations of Human Crying”, Journal of holistic nursing: official journal of the American Holistic Nurses’ Association, vol. 29, pp. 165-66.
  • HOLLIDAY Ruth and THOMPSON Graham (2001), “A Body of Work”, in Contested Bodies, edited by Ruth Holliday and John Hassard, London and New York, Routledge, pp. 165-66.
  • HORKHEIMER Max and ADORNO Theodor W. (2002), Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments, Stanford, Stanford University Press.
  • ILLICH Ivan (1976), Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health, New York: Pantheon Books.
  • KART Elife (2013) “‘Sağlıkta Dönüşüm’ Sürecinde Performansa Dayalı Ücretlendirmenin Hekimler Üzerindeki Etkileri”, Çalışma ve Toplum, 1(3), 103- 40.
  • KATZ Elihu and LAZARSFELD Paul F. (1956), Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications, New Jersey, The Free Press.
  • KRESS Gunther R. (1989), Linguistic Processes in Sociocultural Practice, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • LUPTON Deborah (1992), “Discourse Analysis: A New Methodology for Understanding the Ideologies of Health and Illness”, Australian Journal of Public Health, 16(2), pp. 145-50.
  • LUPTON Deborah (1999), Risk, London and New York, Routledge.
  • LUPTON Deborah (2003), Medicine as Culture, London, Sage.
  • MCGILLIVRAY David (2005a), “Fitter, Happier, More Produc MCGILLIVRAY David (2005b), “Governing Working Bodies Through Leisure”, Leisure Sciences, 27(4), pp. 315-30.
  • MCINTYRE Di and MOONEY Gavin (2007), “Why This Book?” in The Economics of Health Equity, edited by Di McIntyre and Gavin Mooney, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-9.
  • MOONEY Gavin (2012), The Health of Nations: Towards a New Political Economy, London and New York, Zed Books.
  • MOYNIHAN Ray, HEATH Iona and HENRY David (2002) “Selling Sickness: The Pharmaceutical Industry and Disease Mongering”, BMJ, 324(7342), pp. 886-91.
  • MUNCK Ronaldo (2005), “Neoliberalism and Politics, and the Politics of Neoliberalism”, in Neoliberalism: A Critical Reader, edited by A. Saad-Filho and D. Johnston, London, Pluto Press, pp. 60-70.
  • NEUENDORF Kimberly A. (1990), “Health Images in the Mass Media”, in Communication and Health: Systems and Applications, edited by Eileen Berlin Ray and Lewis Donohew, London and New York, Routledge, pp. 60-70.
  • NIETZSCHE Friedrich (2001), The Gay Science, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • PARKER Ian (1992), Discourse Dynamics: Critical Analysis for Social and Individual Psychology, London and New York, Routledge.
  • POWELL J. A., DARVELL, M. and GRAY J. A. M. (2003), “The Doctor, the Patient and the World-Wide Web: How the Internet Is Changing Healthcare”, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96, pp. 74-76.
  • REINHARZ Shulamit (1997), “Enough Already! The Pervasiveness of Warnings in Everyday Life”, Qualitative Sociology, 20(4), pp. 477-85.
  • RITZER George (2011), The McDonaldization of Society, London and New York, Sage.
  • ROBERTSON Ann (1998), “Shifting Discourses on Health in Canada: From Health Promotion to Population Health”, Health Promotion International, 13(2), pp. 155-65.
  • ROSE Nikolas (1993), “Government, Authority and Expertise in Advanced Liberalism”, Economy and Society, 22(3), pp. 283-99.
  • SEALE Clive (2002), Media and Health, London, Sage.
  • SEZGİN Deniz (2011), Tıbbileştirilen Yaşam Bireyselleştirilen Sağlık, Istanbul, Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • TERZİ Cem (2013) “Bilim, Tıp ve Kanıt”, in Kapitalizm Sağlığa Zararlıdır, edited by Osman Elbek, Istanbul, HayyKitap, pp. 71-89.
  • THANEM Torkild (2009), “‘There’s No Limit to How Much You Can Consume’: The New Public Health and the Struggle to Manage Healthy Bodies”, Culture and Organization, 15(1), pp. 59-74.
  • THOMPSON, E. P. (1993), Customs in Common: Studies in Traditional Popular Culture, New York, The New Press.
  • TURNER Bryan S. (1995), Medical Power and Social Knowledge, London, Sage.
  • TURNER Bryan S. (2002), Regulating Bodies: Essays in Medical Sociology, London and New York, Routledge.
  • WACQUANT Loic J. D. (1992), “Toward a Social Praxeology: The Structure and Logic of Bourdieu’s Sociology”, in An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology, edited by Pierre Bourdieu and Loic J. D. Wacquant, Cambridge, Polity Press, pp. 1-61.
  • YÜKSEL Erkan, KAYA Ahmet Yalçın, KOÇAK Abdullah and AYDIN Sinan (2014), Check Up Sağlık İletişimi, Konya: Literatürk.
  • ZOLA Irving Kenneth (1972), “Medicine as an Institution of Social Control”, The Sociological Review, 20 (4), pp. 487-504.

Sağlık ve Hoşnutsuzlukları: Sağlık Kanaat Önderlerinin Sosyal Medya Söylemleri ve Sağlığın Tıbbileştirilmesi

Year 2014, Volume , Issue 21, 103 - 127, 08.12.2014
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.96677

Abstract

Sağlık ve beden ile ilgili kaygılar günümüz toplumlarının neredeyse tüm
alanlarını sömürgeleştirmiş durumdadır. Yurttaşlar daha sağlıklı, daha mutlu bir
hayat yaşama ve daha arzu edilir bir bedene sahip olma üzerine sayısız kaynaktan
yayılan söylemlere maruz kalmaktadırlar. Bu söylemlerin ortak noktası sağlığın
tıbbileştirilmesine ve bireyselleştirilmesinde –yani yaşamın doğal döngülerine
hastalık olarak yaklaşılması ve sağlığın toplumsal belirleyenlerinin göz ardı
edilmesi– oynadıkları roldür. Sağlık profesyonelleri ya da “sağlık kanaat önderleri”
bu süreçte stratejik ve avantajlı bir konum işgal etmektedirler. Son dönemlerde
web 1.0 ve web 2.0 teknolojileri, özellikle de sosyal medya sağlık söyleminin
yayıldığı kaynaklardan biridir. Sosyal medya mecraları sağlık kanaat önderleri
için kolay kanaat/fikir beyanı ve sağlık kanaat önderleri ile takipçileri arasında
karşılıklı etkiletişim olanakları sunmaktadır. Bu figürlerin söylemsel stratejilerinin
merkezinde şu öğelerin tanımlanması ve promosyonu yer alır: hastalık ve korku;
yaşam tarzları ve alışkanlıklar; uzun yaşam; performans ve kişisel gelişim;
doğallık. Bu çalışma sağlık profesyonellerinin sağlık ve beden söylemlerinin
sağlığın tıbbileştirilmesi ve metalaşması ve neoliberal yönetimsellik kavramları ile
ilişkilendirerek ele alınması gerektiği vurgulamaktadır.

References

  • ANGELL Marcia (2008), “Industry-Sponsored Clinical Research”, JAMA, 300(9), pp. 1069-71.
  • ATAAY Faruk (2006), Neoliberalizm ve Devletin Yeniden Yapılandırılması, Ankara, De Ki.
  • ATABEK Gülseren, ATABEK Ümit and BİLGE Deniz (2013), “Sağlık Haberlerinde Dönüşüm: 1970-2010 Yılları Arasında Hürriyet Gazetesinde Sağlık Haberleri”, in Kapitalizm Sağlığa Zararlıdır, edited by Osman Elbek, İstanbul: HayyKitap, pp. 113-33.
  • AYANOĞLU Yıldız, ATAN Murat and BEYLİK Umut (2010), “Hastanelerde Veri Zarflama Analizi (VZA) Yöntemiyle Finansal Performans Ölçümü ve Değerlendirilmesi”, Sağlıkta Performans ve Kalite Dergisi, 1(2), pp. 40-63. BAUDRILLARD Jean (1998), The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, London, Sage.
  • BAUMAN Zygmunt (2000), Modernity and the Holocaust, Cornell, Cornell University Press.
  • BOTTLES Kent (2009), “Patients, Doctors and Health 2.0 Tools”, PEJ, 22-25, July-August.
  • BOURDIEU Pierre (1996), On Television, New York, The New Press. CANGUILHEM Georges (1991), The Normal and the Pathological, New York, Zone Books.
  • CASTEL Robert (1991), “From Dangerousness to Risk”, in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 281-98.
  • CHEEK Julianne (2004), “At the Margins? Discourse Analysis and Qualitative Research”, Qualitative Health Research, 14(8), pp. 1140-50.
  • COBURN David and COBURN Elaine S (2007) “Health and Health Inequalities in a Neo-Liberal Global World”, in The Economics of Health Equity, edited by Di McIntyre and Gavin Mooney, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 13-36.
  • ÇINARLI İnci (2008), Sağlık İletişimi ve Medya, Ankara, Nobel.
  • DELIBAŞ Kayhan (2013), “Sağlığa İlişkin Korkular: Güven Erozyonu Bağlamında Sağlık Korkularını Anlamlandırmak”, in Kapitalizm Sağlığa Zararlıdır, edited by Osman Elbek. Istanbul, HayyKitap, pp. 101-13.
  • VAN DIJK Teun A (1989), “Structures of Discourse and Structures of Power”, in Communication Yearbook 12, edited by J. A. Anderson, California, Sage, pp. 18-59.
  • DILLON Michael (2007), “Governing through Contingency: The Security of Biopolitical Governance”, Political Geography, 26(1), pp. 41-47. ELLIOTT Carl (2010), White Coat, Black Hat: Adventures on the Dark Side of Medicine, Boston, Beacon Press.
  • ERCAN Fuat (2013), “Meta Neleri İçerir? Sağlık Hizmetlerinin Metalaşması”, in Kapitalizm Sağlığa Zararlıdır, edited by Osman Elbek, Istanbul, HayyKitap, pp. 15-41.
  • FAIRCLOUGH Norman (2001) “Critical Discourse Analysis as a Method in Social Scientific Research”, in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, edited by Ruth Wodak and Michael Meyer, California, Sage, pp. 121-39.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1977), Discipline and Punish: The Birth of Prison, New York, Vintage Books.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1978), History of Sexuality Vol 1: An Introduction, New York: Pantheon Books.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1981), “Omnes et Singulatim: Towards a Criticism of ‘Political Reason’”, in The Tanner Lectures on Human Values v. II, edited by S. McMurrin, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, pp. 223-54.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1982), “The Subject and Power”, Critical Inquiry, 8.
  • FOUCAULT Michel (1991), “Governmentality”, in The Foucault effect: Studies in Governmentality, vol. 14, edited by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 87-104.
  • FOUCAULT Michel, (2002), The Archeology of Knowledge, London and New York, Routledge.
  • FUREDI Frank (2002), Culture of Fear: Risk-Taking and the Morality of Low Expectation, London and New York, Continuum.
  • GAMBETTI, Zeynep (2012), “Foucault’tan Agamben’e Olağanüstü Halin Sıradanlığına Dair Bir Yanıt Denemesi”, Cogito (70-71), pp. 1-18. GARLAND David (2001), The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
  • HALL Joanne M. (2011), “Introduction to Three Conceptual Explorations of Human Crying”, Journal of holistic nursing: official journal of the American Holistic Nurses’ Association, vol. 29, pp. 165-66.
  • HOLLIDAY Ruth and THOMPSON Graham (2001), “A Body of Work”, in Contested Bodies, edited by Ruth Holliday and John Hassard, London and New York, Routledge, pp. 165-66.
  • HORKHEIMER Max and ADORNO Theodor W. (2002), Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments, Stanford, Stanford University Press.
  • ILLICH Ivan (1976), Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health, New York: Pantheon Books.
  • KART Elife (2013) “‘Sağlıkta Dönüşüm’ Sürecinde Performansa Dayalı Ücretlendirmenin Hekimler Üzerindeki Etkileri”, Çalışma ve Toplum, 1(3), 103- 40.
  • KATZ Elihu and LAZARSFELD Paul F. (1956), Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications, New Jersey, The Free Press.
  • KRESS Gunther R. (1989), Linguistic Processes in Sociocultural Practice, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • LUPTON Deborah (1992), “Discourse Analysis: A New Methodology for Understanding the Ideologies of Health and Illness”, Australian Journal of Public Health, 16(2), pp. 145-50.
  • LUPTON Deborah (1999), Risk, London and New York, Routledge.
  • LUPTON Deborah (2003), Medicine as Culture, London, Sage.
  • MCGILLIVRAY David (2005a), “Fitter, Happier, More Produc MCGILLIVRAY David (2005b), “Governing Working Bodies Through Leisure”, Leisure Sciences, 27(4), pp. 315-30.
  • MCINTYRE Di and MOONEY Gavin (2007), “Why This Book?” in The Economics of Health Equity, edited by Di McIntyre and Gavin Mooney, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-9.
  • MOONEY Gavin (2012), The Health of Nations: Towards a New Political Economy, London and New York, Zed Books.
  • MOYNIHAN Ray, HEATH Iona and HENRY David (2002) “Selling Sickness: The Pharmaceutical Industry and Disease Mongering”, BMJ, 324(7342), pp. 886-91.
  • MUNCK Ronaldo (2005), “Neoliberalism and Politics, and the Politics of Neoliberalism”, in Neoliberalism: A Critical Reader, edited by A. Saad-Filho and D. Johnston, London, Pluto Press, pp. 60-70.
  • NEUENDORF Kimberly A. (1990), “Health Images in the Mass Media”, in Communication and Health: Systems and Applications, edited by Eileen Berlin Ray and Lewis Donohew, London and New York, Routledge, pp. 60-70.
  • NIETZSCHE Friedrich (2001), The Gay Science, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • PARKER Ian (1992), Discourse Dynamics: Critical Analysis for Social and Individual Psychology, London and New York, Routledge.
  • POWELL J. A., DARVELL, M. and GRAY J. A. M. (2003), “The Doctor, the Patient and the World-Wide Web: How the Internet Is Changing Healthcare”, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96, pp. 74-76.
  • REINHARZ Shulamit (1997), “Enough Already! The Pervasiveness of Warnings in Everyday Life”, Qualitative Sociology, 20(4), pp. 477-85.
  • RITZER George (2011), The McDonaldization of Society, London and New York, Sage.
  • ROBERTSON Ann (1998), “Shifting Discourses on Health in Canada: From Health Promotion to Population Health”, Health Promotion International, 13(2), pp. 155-65.
  • ROSE Nikolas (1993), “Government, Authority and Expertise in Advanced Liberalism”, Economy and Society, 22(3), pp. 283-99.
  • SEALE Clive (2002), Media and Health, London, Sage.
  • SEZGİN Deniz (2011), Tıbbileştirilen Yaşam Bireyselleştirilen Sağlık, Istanbul, Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • TERZİ Cem (2013) “Bilim, Tıp ve Kanıt”, in Kapitalizm Sağlığa Zararlıdır, edited by Osman Elbek, Istanbul, HayyKitap, pp. 71-89.
  • THANEM Torkild (2009), “‘There’s No Limit to How Much You Can Consume’: The New Public Health and the Struggle to Manage Healthy Bodies”, Culture and Organization, 15(1), pp. 59-74.
  • THOMPSON, E. P. (1993), Customs in Common: Studies in Traditional Popular Culture, New York, The New Press.
  • TURNER Bryan S. (1995), Medical Power and Social Knowledge, London, Sage.
  • TURNER Bryan S. (2002), Regulating Bodies: Essays in Medical Sociology, London and New York, Routledge.
  • WACQUANT Loic J. D. (1992), “Toward a Social Praxeology: The Structure and Logic of Bourdieu’s Sociology”, in An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology, edited by Pierre Bourdieu and Loic J. D. Wacquant, Cambridge, Polity Press, pp. 1-61.
  • YÜKSEL Erkan, KAYA Ahmet Yalçın, KOÇAK Abdullah and AYDIN Sinan (2014), Check Up Sağlık İletişimi, Konya: Literatürk.
  • ZOLA Irving Kenneth (1972), “Medicine as an Institution of Social Control”, The Sociological Review, 20 (4), pp. 487-504.

La Santé et ses malaises: Le discours des leaders d’opinion sur la santé dans les médias sociaux et la médicalisations de la Santé

Year 2014, Volume , Issue 21, 103 - 127, 08.12.2014
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.96677

Abstract

Les soucis concernant la santé et le corps ont déjà monopolisés nos
jours tous les sujets de la vie quotidienne Les citoyens sont en train de subir
d’innombrables déclarations diffusées par des milliers de sources à propos d’une
vie plus saine, plus heureuse et un corps plus désirable. Le point commun de
ces discours est le role qu’ils jouent dans la médicalisation et l’individualisation
de la santé (C’est-à-dire que les cycles naturels de la vie sont considérés
comme des maladies et que les facteurs sociaux de la santé sont ignorés)
Les professionnels de la santé ou encore les leader d’opinion ont dans cette
démarche une position stratégique et avantageuse. Les technologies Web 1.0
et web 2.0 sont une des sources qui permettent la diffusion de ces messages
a travers les réseaux sociaux d’une façon très rapide.. Les réseaux sociaux
offrent facilement des possibilités d’interaction entre les leaders d’opinion de
la santé et leurs abonnés, et de déclaration d’idées/d’opinion. Au cœur de leur
stratégie discursive se trouvent la définition et la promotion des maladies et de
la peur; des modes de vie et des habitudes; la beauté; la longévité de la vie; la
performance et le développement personnel; et l’état d’être naturel. Cet article
propose que les discours de médias sociaux de professionnels de la santé sur la
santé et le corps doivent être considérés dans le cadre de la médicalisation et la
marchandisation de la santé dans les sociétés contemporaines, tout en tenant
compte de la gouvernementalité néolibérale.

References

  • ANGELL Marcia (2008), “Industry-Sponsored Clinical Research”, JAMA, 300(9), pp. 1069-71.
  • ATAAY Faruk (2006), Neoliberalizm ve Devletin Yeniden Yapılandırılması, Ankara, De Ki.
  • ATABEK Gülseren, ATABEK Ümit and BİLGE Deniz (2013), “Sağlık Haberlerinde Dönüşüm: 1970-2010 Yılları Arasında Hürriyet Gazetesinde Sağlık Haberleri”, in Kapitalizm Sağlığa Zararlıdır, edited by Osman Elbek, İstanbul: HayyKitap, pp. 113-33.
  • AYANOĞLU Yıldız, ATAN Murat and BEYLİK Umut (2010), “Hastanelerde Veri Zarflama Analizi (VZA) Yöntemiyle Finansal Performans Ölçümü ve Değerlendirilmesi”, Sağlıkta Performans ve Kalite Dergisi, 1(2), pp. 40-63. BAUDRILLARD Jean (1998), The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, London, Sage.
  • BAUMAN Zygmunt (2000), Modernity and the Holocaust, Cornell, Cornell University Press.
  • BOTTLES Kent (2009), “Patients, Doctors and Health 2.0 Tools”, PEJ, 22-25, July-August.
  • BOURDIEU Pierre (1996), On Television, New York, The New Press. CANGUILHEM Georges (1991), The Normal and the Pathological, New York, Zone Books.
  • CASTEL Robert (1991), “From Dangerousness to Risk”, in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 281-98.
  • CHEEK Julianne (2004), “At the Margins? Discourse Analysis and Qualitative Research”, Qualitative Health Research, 14(8), pp. 1140-50.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Yasemin İNCEOĞLU


Burak Özçetin This is me


Meltem Gökmen Tol This is me


Saygın Vedat Alkurt This is me

Publication Date December 8, 2014
Published in Issue Year 2014, Volume , Issue 21

Cite

APA İnceoğlu, Y. , Özçetin, B. , Gökmen Tol, M. & Alkurt, S. V. (2014). Health and Its Discontents: Health Opinion Leaders’ Social Media Discourses and Medicalization of Health . Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi , (21) , 103-127 . DOI: 10.16878/gsuilet.96677

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