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Déshumanisations dans les caricatures politiques : une étude de cas sur les Juifs de Turquie entre 1930 et 1945

Year 2023, Issue: 39, 7 - 34, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.1290012

Abstract

Cette étude vise à examiner l'utilisation des techniques de déshumanisation dans les caricatures politiques publiées en Turquie entre 1930 et 1945. À cette fin, différents types de déshumanisation ont été examinés principalement dans le cadre conceptuel et théorique. Ensuite, cinq caricatures sélectionnées par la méthode d'échantillonnage raisonné ont été soumises à une analyse sémiotique et critique du discours. Au terme de l'étude, on constate que différents types de déshumanisation se retrouvent dans les caricatures. Cependant, alors que la déshumanisation a été utilisée pour les Japonais dans les caricatures en Amérique ou pour les Juifs dans les caricatures en Allemagne de cette époque avec un message de génocide, celle dans ces caricatures en Turquie a émergé plutôt sous forme de boucs émissaires pour les problèmes économiques et autres rencontrés.

References

  • Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. CA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Arkonaç, S. A. (2014). Psikolojide Söz ve Anlam Analizi: Niteliksel Duruş. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Barthes, R. (2012). Göstergebilimsel Serüven. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Bauman, Z. (2003). Modernlik ve Müphemlik. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Berlet, C. (2003). Mapping the Political Right: Gender and Race Oppression in Right-Wing Movements. In A. L. Ferber, Home-Grown Hate Gender and Organized Racism (pp. 18-45). Routledge.
  • Berlet, C. (2020). Trumping Democracy: From Reagan to the Alt-Right. Routledge.
  • Bernard, V., Ottenberg, P., & Redl, F. (1965). Dehumanization: a composite psychological defense in relation to modern war. In M. Schwebel, Behavioral Science and Human Survival,. Behavioral Science Press.
  • Bielefeld, B. S. (2009). The Dehumanising Violence of Racism – The Role of Law (Ph.D. thesis). Southern Cross University.
  • Burton, N. (2012). Hide and Seek: The Psychology of Self-Deception (Ataraxia Book 2). Acheron Press.
  • Cameron, C. D., Harris, L. T., & Payne, B. K. (2015). The Emotional Cost of Humanity: Anticipated Exhaustion Motivates Dehumanization of Stigmatized Targets. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(2). doi:10.1177/194855061560445
  • Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2009). Exploring the Roots of Dehumanization: The Role of Animal-Human Similarity in Promoting Immigrant Humanization. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13(1), 3-22. doi:10.1177/1368430209347725
  • Çelik, H., & Ekşi, H. (2008). Söylem Analizi. Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 27(27), 99-117.
  • Dower, J. W. (1986). War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Random House.
  • Eco, U. (2014). Düşman Yaratmak. İstanbul: Doğan Egmont Yayıncılık.
  • EGM. (2022). Geçmişten Günümüze Türk Polis Kıyafetleri. Ankara: İçişleri Bakanlığı Genel Yayın No: 836.
  • Foucault, M. (2002). The Archaeology of Knowledge. Routledge Classics.
  • Foucault, M. (2005). Entelektüelin Siyasi İşlevi. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Frey, J. (2014). Apocalyptic Dualism. In J. J. Collins, The Oxford Handbook of Apocalyptic Literature (pp. 271-294). Oxford University Press.
  • Girard, R. (2005). Günah Keçisi. İstanbul: Kanat Kitap.
  • Güneş, A. (2014). İletişim Araştırmalarında Göstergebilim. Konya: Literatürk Academia.
  • Haagensen, L., & Croes, M. (2012). Thy Brother’s Keeper? The Relationship between Social Distance and Intensity of Dehumanization during Genocide. Genocide Studies and Prevention, 7, 223-250. doi:10.3138/gsp.7.2/3.223
  • Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 252–264. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr1003
  • Haslam, N., Loughnan, S., & Sun, P. (2011). Beastly: What Makes Animal Metaphors Offensive? Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 30(3), 311-325. doi:10.1177/0261927X11407168
  • Hellström, J. (2018). Dehumanization in Everyday Politics A study of discursive dehumanization of beggars on social media. Uppsala University Master Thesis.
  • James W. Jones. (2010). Conclusion: A Fundamentalist Mindset? In C. Strozier, D. C. Strozier, D. M. Terman, J. W. Jones, & K. A. Boyd, The Fundamentalist Mindset: Psychological Perspectives on Religion, Violence, and History (pp. 216-220). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Kearney, R. (2012). Yabancılar, Tanrılar ve Canavarlar. İstanbul: Metis Yayınları.
  • Kirschen, Y. (2015). Hitler’s Legacy: Islamic Antisemitism in the Middle East. In C. A. Small, The Yale Papers Antisemitism In Comparative Perspective (pp. 435-456). ISGAP.
  • Kteily, N., Bruneau, E., Waytz, A., & Cotterill, S. (2015). The ascent of man: Theoretical and empirical evidence for blatant dehumanization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(5), 901-931. doi:10.1037/pspp0000048
  • Leyens, J.-P., Cortes, B., Demoulin, S., Dovidio, J. F., Fiske, S. T., Gaunt, R., . . . Vaes, J. (2003). Emotional prejudice, essentialism, and nationalism The 2002 Tajfel lecture. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33(6), 703-717. doi:10.1002/ejsp.170
  • Leyens, J.-P., Paladino, P. M., Rodriguez-Torres, R., Vaes, J., Demoulin, S., Rodriguez-Pere, . . . Gaunt, R. (2000). The Emotional Side of Prejudice: The Attribution of Secondary Emotions to Ingroups and Outgroups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(2), 186-197. doi:10.1207/S15327957PSPR0402_06
  • Metinsoy, M. (2017). İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nda Türkiye. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Moskovici, S. (1996). Yabancı Parmağı- Komplo Zihniyeti. Birikim Dergisi(90), 45-59.
  • Özer, S. (2015). II. Dünya Savaşı Yıllarında İstanbul'da Tifüs. Journal Of Modern Turkish History Studies, XV(30), 171-201.
  • Russell, E. P. (1996). Speaking of Annihilation’: Mobilizing for War against Human and Insect Enemies 1914–1945. Journal of American History, 82(4), pp. 1505–1529.
  • Savage, R. (2006). Vermin to be Cleared off the Face of the Earth: Perpetrator Representations of Genocide Victims as Animals’. In C. Tatz, P. Arnold, & S. Tatz, Genocide Perspectives III – Essays on the Holocaust and Other Genocides (pp. 17-45). Brandl & Schlesinger.
  • Savage, R. (2007). "Disease Incarnate": Biopolitical Discourse and Genocidal Dehumanisation in the Age of Modernity. Journal of Historical Sociology, 3(20), 404-440.
  • Savage, R. (2007). “Disease Incarnate”: Biopolitical Discourse and Genocidal Dehumanisation in the Age of Modernity. Journal of Historical Sociology, 20(3), 404-440. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6443.2007.00315.x
  • Steiner, G. (1967). Language and silence; essays on language, literature, and the inhuman. Open Road Integrated Media.
  • Tibi, B. (2015). From Sayyid Qutb to Hamas: The Middle East Conflict and the Islamization of Antisemitism*. In C. A. Small, The Yale Papers Antisemitism In Comparative Perspective (pp. 457-484). ISGA.
  • Tipler, C., & Ruscher, J. B. (2014). Agency's Role in Dehumanization: Non-human Metaphors of Out-groups. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8, 214-228. doi:10.1111/spc3.12100
  • Utych, S. M. (2017). How Dehumanization Influences Attitudes toward Immigrants. Political Research Quarterly, 71(2). doi:10.1177/1065912917744
  • Ülkü, G. (2004). Söylem Çözümlemesinde Yöntem Sorunu ve van Dijk Yöntemi. In Ç. Dursun, Haber ,Hakikat ve İktidar İlişkisi (pp. 371-389). İstanbul: Elips Yayınları.
  • van Dijk, T. (2000, 04 12). New(s) Racism: A Discourse Analytical Approach. Ethnic Minorities and The Media(37), 33-49.
  • van Dijk, T. (2005). Söylemin Yapıları ve İktidarın Yapıları. In M. Küçük, Medya, İktidar, İdeoloji (pp. 331-398). Ankara: Ark Yayınları.
  • van Dijk, T. (2015). Söylem ve İdeoloji: Çok Alanlı Bir Yaklaşım. In B. Çoban, & Z. Özarslan, Söylem ve İdeoloji (pp. 44-45). İstanbul: Su Yayınevi.
  • Volkan, V. D. (1985, Jun.). The Need to Have Enemies and Allies: A Developmental Approach. Political Psychology, No.2(Vol.6), 219-247.
  • Waytz, A., & Epley, N. (2002). Social Connection Enables Dehumanization. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 70–76. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.07.012
  • Waytz, A., & Epley, N. (2012). Social Connection Enables Dehumanization. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 70–76. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.07.012
  • Wyman, D. S. (1984). The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, 1941–1945. Pantheon.

Siyasal Karikatürlerde Dehümanizasyon: 1930-1945 Yılları Arasındaki Karikatürlerde Yahudiler Üzerine Bir Çalışma

Year 2023, Issue: 39, 7 - 34, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.1290012

Abstract

Bu çalışma, 1930-1945 yılları arasında Türkiye'de yayınlanan siyasal karikatürlerde dehümanizasyon tekniklerinin kullanımını incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaçla öncelikle kavramsal ve kuramsal çerçevede farklı dehümanizasyon türleri incelenmiştir. Daha sonra amaçlı örnekleme yöntemiyle seçilen beş karikatür göstergebilim ve eleştirel söylem analizine tabi tutulmuştur. Çalışmanın sonunda karikatürlerde farklı dehümanizasyon biçimlerine rastlandığı görülmüştür. Ancak bu dönemde Amerika’daki karikatürlerde Japonlar veya Almanya’daki karikatürlerde Yahudiler için soykırım mesajı içeren insanlıktan çıkarma kullanılırken, Türkiye'de bu karikatürlerde dehümanizasyon dönemin ekonomik ve diğer sorunlar için daha çok günah keçisi olarak ortaya çıktığı anlaşılmaktadır.

References

  • Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. CA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Arkonaç, S. A. (2014). Psikolojide Söz ve Anlam Analizi: Niteliksel Duruş. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Barthes, R. (2012). Göstergebilimsel Serüven. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Bauman, Z. (2003). Modernlik ve Müphemlik. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Berlet, C. (2003). Mapping the Political Right: Gender and Race Oppression in Right-Wing Movements. In A. L. Ferber, Home-Grown Hate Gender and Organized Racism (pp. 18-45). Routledge.
  • Berlet, C. (2020). Trumping Democracy: From Reagan to the Alt-Right. Routledge.
  • Bernard, V., Ottenberg, P., & Redl, F. (1965). Dehumanization: a composite psychological defense in relation to modern war. In M. Schwebel, Behavioral Science and Human Survival,. Behavioral Science Press.
  • Bielefeld, B. S. (2009). The Dehumanising Violence of Racism – The Role of Law (Ph.D. thesis). Southern Cross University.
  • Burton, N. (2012). Hide and Seek: The Psychology of Self-Deception (Ataraxia Book 2). Acheron Press.
  • Cameron, C. D., Harris, L. T., & Payne, B. K. (2015). The Emotional Cost of Humanity: Anticipated Exhaustion Motivates Dehumanization of Stigmatized Targets. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(2). doi:10.1177/194855061560445
  • Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2009). Exploring the Roots of Dehumanization: The Role of Animal-Human Similarity in Promoting Immigrant Humanization. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13(1), 3-22. doi:10.1177/1368430209347725
  • Çelik, H., & Ekşi, H. (2008). Söylem Analizi. Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 27(27), 99-117.
  • Dower, J. W. (1986). War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Random House.
  • Eco, U. (2014). Düşman Yaratmak. İstanbul: Doğan Egmont Yayıncılık.
  • EGM. (2022). Geçmişten Günümüze Türk Polis Kıyafetleri. Ankara: İçişleri Bakanlığı Genel Yayın No: 836.
  • Foucault, M. (2002). The Archaeology of Knowledge. Routledge Classics.
  • Foucault, M. (2005). Entelektüelin Siyasi İşlevi. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Frey, J. (2014). Apocalyptic Dualism. In J. J. Collins, The Oxford Handbook of Apocalyptic Literature (pp. 271-294). Oxford University Press.
  • Girard, R. (2005). Günah Keçisi. İstanbul: Kanat Kitap.
  • Güneş, A. (2014). İletişim Araştırmalarında Göstergebilim. Konya: Literatürk Academia.
  • Haagensen, L., & Croes, M. (2012). Thy Brother’s Keeper? The Relationship between Social Distance and Intensity of Dehumanization during Genocide. Genocide Studies and Prevention, 7, 223-250. doi:10.3138/gsp.7.2/3.223
  • Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 252–264. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr1003
  • Haslam, N., Loughnan, S., & Sun, P. (2011). Beastly: What Makes Animal Metaphors Offensive? Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 30(3), 311-325. doi:10.1177/0261927X11407168
  • Hellström, J. (2018). Dehumanization in Everyday Politics A study of discursive dehumanization of beggars on social media. Uppsala University Master Thesis.
  • James W. Jones. (2010). Conclusion: A Fundamentalist Mindset? In C. Strozier, D. C. Strozier, D. M. Terman, J. W. Jones, & K. A. Boyd, The Fundamentalist Mindset: Psychological Perspectives on Religion, Violence, and History (pp. 216-220). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Kearney, R. (2012). Yabancılar, Tanrılar ve Canavarlar. İstanbul: Metis Yayınları.
  • Kirschen, Y. (2015). Hitler’s Legacy: Islamic Antisemitism in the Middle East. In C. A. Small, The Yale Papers Antisemitism In Comparative Perspective (pp. 435-456). ISGAP.
  • Kteily, N., Bruneau, E., Waytz, A., & Cotterill, S. (2015). The ascent of man: Theoretical and empirical evidence for blatant dehumanization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(5), 901-931. doi:10.1037/pspp0000048
  • Leyens, J.-P., Cortes, B., Demoulin, S., Dovidio, J. F., Fiske, S. T., Gaunt, R., . . . Vaes, J. (2003). Emotional prejudice, essentialism, and nationalism The 2002 Tajfel lecture. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33(6), 703-717. doi:10.1002/ejsp.170
  • Leyens, J.-P., Paladino, P. M., Rodriguez-Torres, R., Vaes, J., Demoulin, S., Rodriguez-Pere, . . . Gaunt, R. (2000). The Emotional Side of Prejudice: The Attribution of Secondary Emotions to Ingroups and Outgroups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(2), 186-197. doi:10.1207/S15327957PSPR0402_06
  • Metinsoy, M. (2017). İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nda Türkiye. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Moskovici, S. (1996). Yabancı Parmağı- Komplo Zihniyeti. Birikim Dergisi(90), 45-59.
  • Özer, S. (2015). II. Dünya Savaşı Yıllarında İstanbul'da Tifüs. Journal Of Modern Turkish History Studies, XV(30), 171-201.
  • Russell, E. P. (1996). Speaking of Annihilation’: Mobilizing for War against Human and Insect Enemies 1914–1945. Journal of American History, 82(4), pp. 1505–1529.
  • Savage, R. (2006). Vermin to be Cleared off the Face of the Earth: Perpetrator Representations of Genocide Victims as Animals’. In C. Tatz, P. Arnold, & S. Tatz, Genocide Perspectives III – Essays on the Holocaust and Other Genocides (pp. 17-45). Brandl & Schlesinger.
  • Savage, R. (2007). "Disease Incarnate": Biopolitical Discourse and Genocidal Dehumanisation in the Age of Modernity. Journal of Historical Sociology, 3(20), 404-440.
  • Savage, R. (2007). “Disease Incarnate”: Biopolitical Discourse and Genocidal Dehumanisation in the Age of Modernity. Journal of Historical Sociology, 20(3), 404-440. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6443.2007.00315.x
  • Steiner, G. (1967). Language and silence; essays on language, literature, and the inhuman. Open Road Integrated Media.
  • Tibi, B. (2015). From Sayyid Qutb to Hamas: The Middle East Conflict and the Islamization of Antisemitism*. In C. A. Small, The Yale Papers Antisemitism In Comparative Perspective (pp. 457-484). ISGA.
  • Tipler, C., & Ruscher, J. B. (2014). Agency's Role in Dehumanization: Non-human Metaphors of Out-groups. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8, 214-228. doi:10.1111/spc3.12100
  • Utych, S. M. (2017). How Dehumanization Influences Attitudes toward Immigrants. Political Research Quarterly, 71(2). doi:10.1177/1065912917744
  • Ülkü, G. (2004). Söylem Çözümlemesinde Yöntem Sorunu ve van Dijk Yöntemi. In Ç. Dursun, Haber ,Hakikat ve İktidar İlişkisi (pp. 371-389). İstanbul: Elips Yayınları.
  • van Dijk, T. (2000, 04 12). New(s) Racism: A Discourse Analytical Approach. Ethnic Minorities and The Media(37), 33-49.
  • van Dijk, T. (2005). Söylemin Yapıları ve İktidarın Yapıları. In M. Küçük, Medya, İktidar, İdeoloji (pp. 331-398). Ankara: Ark Yayınları.
  • van Dijk, T. (2015). Söylem ve İdeoloji: Çok Alanlı Bir Yaklaşım. In B. Çoban, & Z. Özarslan, Söylem ve İdeoloji (pp. 44-45). İstanbul: Su Yayınevi.
  • Volkan, V. D. (1985, Jun.). The Need to Have Enemies and Allies: A Developmental Approach. Political Psychology, No.2(Vol.6), 219-247.
  • Waytz, A., & Epley, N. (2002). Social Connection Enables Dehumanization. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 70–76. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.07.012
  • Waytz, A., & Epley, N. (2012). Social Connection Enables Dehumanization. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 70–76. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.07.012
  • Wyman, D. S. (1984). The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, 1941–1945. Pantheon.

Dehumanizations in Political Cartoons: A Case Study on the Jews in Turkiye Between 1930-1945

Year 2023, Issue: 39, 7 - 34, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.1290012

Abstract

This study aims to examine the use of dehumanization techniques in political cartoons published in Türkiye between 1930-1945. For this purpose, different types of dehumanization were examined primarily in the conceptual and theoretical framework. Then, five cartoons selected by the purposive sampling method were subjected to semiotics and critical discourse analysis. At the end of the study, it is seen that different types of dehumanization are found in cartoons. However, while dehumanization with a message of genocide was used for the Japanese in the cartoons in America or for the Jews in the cartoons in Germany in this period, it is understood that the dehumanization in these cartoons in Türkiye emerged mostly in the form of scapegoats for the economic and other problems experienced.

References

  • Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. CA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Arkonaç, S. A. (2014). Psikolojide Söz ve Anlam Analizi: Niteliksel Duruş. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Barthes, R. (2012). Göstergebilimsel Serüven. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Bauman, Z. (2003). Modernlik ve Müphemlik. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Berlet, C. (2003). Mapping the Political Right: Gender and Race Oppression in Right-Wing Movements. In A. L. Ferber, Home-Grown Hate Gender and Organized Racism (pp. 18-45). Routledge.
  • Berlet, C. (2020). Trumping Democracy: From Reagan to the Alt-Right. Routledge.
  • Bernard, V., Ottenberg, P., & Redl, F. (1965). Dehumanization: a composite psychological defense in relation to modern war. In M. Schwebel, Behavioral Science and Human Survival,. Behavioral Science Press.
  • Bielefeld, B. S. (2009). The Dehumanising Violence of Racism – The Role of Law (Ph.D. thesis). Southern Cross University.
  • Burton, N. (2012). Hide and Seek: The Psychology of Self-Deception (Ataraxia Book 2). Acheron Press.
  • Cameron, C. D., Harris, L. T., & Payne, B. K. (2015). The Emotional Cost of Humanity: Anticipated Exhaustion Motivates Dehumanization of Stigmatized Targets. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(2). doi:10.1177/194855061560445
  • Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2009). Exploring the Roots of Dehumanization: The Role of Animal-Human Similarity in Promoting Immigrant Humanization. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13(1), 3-22. doi:10.1177/1368430209347725
  • Çelik, H., & Ekşi, H. (2008). Söylem Analizi. Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 27(27), 99-117.
  • Dower, J. W. (1986). War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Random House.
  • Eco, U. (2014). Düşman Yaratmak. İstanbul: Doğan Egmont Yayıncılık.
  • EGM. (2022). Geçmişten Günümüze Türk Polis Kıyafetleri. Ankara: İçişleri Bakanlığı Genel Yayın No: 836.
  • Foucault, M. (2002). The Archaeology of Knowledge. Routledge Classics.
  • Foucault, M. (2005). Entelektüelin Siyasi İşlevi. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Frey, J. (2014). Apocalyptic Dualism. In J. J. Collins, The Oxford Handbook of Apocalyptic Literature (pp. 271-294). Oxford University Press.
  • Girard, R. (2005). Günah Keçisi. İstanbul: Kanat Kitap.
  • Güneş, A. (2014). İletişim Araştırmalarında Göstergebilim. Konya: Literatürk Academia.
  • Haagensen, L., & Croes, M. (2012). Thy Brother’s Keeper? The Relationship between Social Distance and Intensity of Dehumanization during Genocide. Genocide Studies and Prevention, 7, 223-250. doi:10.3138/gsp.7.2/3.223
  • Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 252–264. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr1003
  • Haslam, N., Loughnan, S., & Sun, P. (2011). Beastly: What Makes Animal Metaphors Offensive? Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 30(3), 311-325. doi:10.1177/0261927X11407168
  • Hellström, J. (2018). Dehumanization in Everyday Politics A study of discursive dehumanization of beggars on social media. Uppsala University Master Thesis.
  • James W. Jones. (2010). Conclusion: A Fundamentalist Mindset? In C. Strozier, D. C. Strozier, D. M. Terman, J. W. Jones, & K. A. Boyd, The Fundamentalist Mindset: Psychological Perspectives on Religion, Violence, and History (pp. 216-220). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Kearney, R. (2012). Yabancılar, Tanrılar ve Canavarlar. İstanbul: Metis Yayınları.
  • Kirschen, Y. (2015). Hitler’s Legacy: Islamic Antisemitism in the Middle East. In C. A. Small, The Yale Papers Antisemitism In Comparative Perspective (pp. 435-456). ISGAP.
  • Kteily, N., Bruneau, E., Waytz, A., & Cotterill, S. (2015). The ascent of man: Theoretical and empirical evidence for blatant dehumanization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(5), 901-931. doi:10.1037/pspp0000048
  • Leyens, J.-P., Cortes, B., Demoulin, S., Dovidio, J. F., Fiske, S. T., Gaunt, R., . . . Vaes, J. (2003). Emotional prejudice, essentialism, and nationalism The 2002 Tajfel lecture. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33(6), 703-717. doi:10.1002/ejsp.170
  • Leyens, J.-P., Paladino, P. M., Rodriguez-Torres, R., Vaes, J., Demoulin, S., Rodriguez-Pere, . . . Gaunt, R. (2000). The Emotional Side of Prejudice: The Attribution of Secondary Emotions to Ingroups and Outgroups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(2), 186-197. doi:10.1207/S15327957PSPR0402_06
  • Metinsoy, M. (2017). İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nda Türkiye. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Moskovici, S. (1996). Yabancı Parmağı- Komplo Zihniyeti. Birikim Dergisi(90), 45-59.
  • Özer, S. (2015). II. Dünya Savaşı Yıllarında İstanbul'da Tifüs. Journal Of Modern Turkish History Studies, XV(30), 171-201.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Communication Studies
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Nigar DEĞİRMENCİ 0000-0002-6295-6265

Ç. P. TUNÇER 0000-0001-6114-6909

Publication Date December 30, 2023
Acceptance Date December 25, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Issue: 39

Cite

APA DEĞİRMENCİ, N., & TUNÇER, Ç. P. (2023). Dehumanizations in Political Cartoons: A Case Study on the Jews in Turkiye Between 1930-1945. Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi(39), 7-34. https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.1290012

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