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Traces of Technological Determinism in Contract for The Web

Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 5, 71 - 93, 29.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.829456

Öz

It is a common critique that technological determinism is a mode of reasoning which oversimplifies the relationship between technological development and social change. However, despite its systematic, programmatic, and multidimensional critique, this way of thinking remains alive in technology policy texts and public debates on technology in particular. Based on the approaches that can be gathered under the title of the social shaping of technology, this article discusses a technology policy proposal that aims to transform the internet. It examines the framework of the call announced by the Web Foundation under the title of the Web Contract in 2019 as an example that embodies the debate on technological determinism.

Kaynakça

  • Ansal, H, Ekinci, M., & Kaşdoğan, D. (2018). Bilim, Teknoloji ve Toplum Çalışmaları’na bir giriş. Toplum ve Bilim, 144, 9-38.
  • Akrich, M. (1992). The De-Scription of Technical Objects. Bijker, W. E. & Law, J. (ed.) Shaping Technology/Building Society: Studies in Sociotechnical Change içinde (s.205-225) Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Berners-Lee, T. (6 Aralık 2018). How to Save The Web. New York Times. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/06/opinion/tim-berners-lee-saving-the-internet.html
  • Berners-Lee, T. (24 Kasım 2019). I Invented the World Wide Web. Here’s How We Can Fix It. New York Times. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/24/opinion/world-wide-web.html
  • Berners-Lee, T. (12 Mart 2019a). 30 Years On, What’s Next #ForTheWeb. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020, https://webfoundation.org/2019/03/web-birthday-30/
  • Bijker, W. E. & Pinch, T. J. (2012). The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts: Or How the Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Technology Might Benefit Each Other. Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P. & Pinch, T. (ed.) The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions In The Sociology and History of Technology içinde (s.11-45) Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Bimber, B. (1994). The Three Faces of Technological Determinism. M. R. Smith & L. Marx (ed.), Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism içinde (s. 79–100). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Brey, P. (1997). Philosophy of technology meets social constructivism: A shopper’s guide. Techné: Journal for the Society of Philosophy and Technology, n. 3–4.
  • Boczkowski, P., & Lievrouw, L. A. (2008). Bridging STS and Communication Studies: Scholarship on Media and Information Technologies. Hackett, E. J., Amsterdamska, O., Lynch, M. &Wajcman, J. (ed.) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies: Third Edition içinde (s. 951–977). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Contract For The Web. (Kasım 2019). Erişim 1 Ekim 2020, https://contractfortheweb.org/, (Pdf versiyonu) https://9nrane41lq4966uwmljcfggv-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/Contract-for-the-Web-3.pdf
  • Freedman, D. (2002). A ‘technological idiot’? Raymond Williams and communications technology. Information, Communication & Society, 5(3), 425-442.
  • Hern, A. (12 Mart 2019). Tim Berners-Lee on 30 years of the world wide web: ‘We can get the web we want’. The Guardian. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020 https://www. theguardian.com/technology/2019/mar/12/tim-berners-lee-on-30-years-of-theweb-if-we-dream-a-little-we-can-get-the-web-we-want
  • Jones, P. (1998). The technology is not the cultural form? Raymond William’s sociological critique of Marshall McLuhan. Canadian Journal of Communication ; Toronto, 23(4), 423–454.
  • Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling The Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • MacKenzie, D., & Wajcman, J. (1985). Introduction: The Social Shaping of Technology. MacKenzie, D., & J. Wajcman. (ed.). The Social Shaping of Technology: How the Refrigerator Got Its Hum içinde (s.2-26). Philadelphia: Open University Press.
  • Marx, L., & Smith, M. R. (1994). Introduction. M. R. Smith & L. Marx (ed.) Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism içinde (p.ix-xv).Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • McLuhan, M. (1988). The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of The Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • McLuhan, M. (1994) Understanding Media: Extensions of Man. Londra: MIT Press.
  • Sismondo, S. (2008). Science and technology studies and an engaged program.
  • Hackett, E. J., Amsterdamska, O., Lynch, M. &Wajcman, J. (ed.) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies: Third Edition içinde (s. 13–32). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Thomas, G., & Wyatt, S. (2000). Access is not the only problem: Using and controlling the Internet. Wyatt, S., Henwood, F., Miller, N., & Senjer, P. (ed.) Technology and In/equality: Questioning The Information Society içinde(s. 21-45). Londra: Routledge.
  • Web Foundation (2018). The Case #ForTheWeb. Washington DC: Web Foundation.
  • Williams, R., & Edge, D. (1996). The social shaping of technology. Research Policy, 25(6), 865-899.
  • Williams, R. (1964). A Structure of Insights. University of Toronto Quarterly 33(3), 338-340.
  • Williams, R. (1977). Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Williams, R. (2004). Television: Technology and Cultural Form. New York: Routledge.
  • Williams, R. (2012). Anahtar Sözcükler: Kültür ve Toplumun Sözvarlığı. Kılıç, S. (çev.). İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Williams, R. (2018). Kültür ve Teknoloji. Modernizmin Siyaseti içinde (s.147-173). Şannan, B. (çev.) İstanbul: Sel Yayıncılık.
  • Wyatt, S. (2008). Technological Determinism Is Dead; Long Live Technological Determinism. Hackett, E. J., Amsterdamska, O., Lynch, M. &Wajcman, J. (ed.) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies: Third Edition içinde (s. 165–180). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Les traces du déterminisme technologique dans le contrat pour le Web

Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 5, 71 - 93, 29.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.829456

Öz

Il est assez courant de voir la critique du déterminisme technologique comme une pensée simplifiant à l’extrême la relation entre le développement technologique et le changement social. Cependant, malgré sa critique systématique, programmatique et multidimensionnelle, cette façon de penser reste vivante, en particulier dans les textes de la politique technologique et dans le débat public sur la technologie. En nous basant sur les approches qui peuvent être rassemblées sous le titre de façonnage social de la technologie, cet article examine une proposition de la politique technologique visant à transformer l’internet. Il met en évidence le cadre de l’appel annoncé par la Web Fondation sous le titre de Contrat Pour le Web en 2019 comme un exemple incarnant le débat actuel sur le déterminisme technologique ambiant.

Kaynakça

  • Ansal, H, Ekinci, M., & Kaşdoğan, D. (2018). Bilim, Teknoloji ve Toplum Çalışmaları’na bir giriş. Toplum ve Bilim, 144, 9-38.
  • Akrich, M. (1992). The De-Scription of Technical Objects. Bijker, W. E. & Law, J. (ed.) Shaping Technology/Building Society: Studies in Sociotechnical Change içinde (s.205-225) Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Berners-Lee, T. (6 Aralık 2018). How to Save The Web. New York Times. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/06/opinion/tim-berners-lee-saving-the-internet.html
  • Berners-Lee, T. (24 Kasım 2019). I Invented the World Wide Web. Here’s How We Can Fix It. New York Times. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/24/opinion/world-wide-web.html
  • Berners-Lee, T. (12 Mart 2019a). 30 Years On, What’s Next #ForTheWeb. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020, https://webfoundation.org/2019/03/web-birthday-30/
  • Bijker, W. E. & Pinch, T. J. (2012). The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts: Or How the Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Technology Might Benefit Each Other. Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P. & Pinch, T. (ed.) The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions In The Sociology and History of Technology içinde (s.11-45) Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Bimber, B. (1994). The Three Faces of Technological Determinism. M. R. Smith & L. Marx (ed.), Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism içinde (s. 79–100). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Brey, P. (1997). Philosophy of technology meets social constructivism: A shopper’s guide. Techné: Journal for the Society of Philosophy and Technology, n. 3–4.
  • Boczkowski, P., & Lievrouw, L. A. (2008). Bridging STS and Communication Studies: Scholarship on Media and Information Technologies. Hackett, E. J., Amsterdamska, O., Lynch, M. &Wajcman, J. (ed.) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies: Third Edition içinde (s. 951–977). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Contract For The Web. (Kasım 2019). Erişim 1 Ekim 2020, https://contractfortheweb.org/, (Pdf versiyonu) https://9nrane41lq4966uwmljcfggv-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/Contract-for-the-Web-3.pdf
  • Freedman, D. (2002). A ‘technological idiot’? Raymond Williams and communications technology. Information, Communication & Society, 5(3), 425-442.
  • Hern, A. (12 Mart 2019). Tim Berners-Lee on 30 years of the world wide web: ‘We can get the web we want’. The Guardian. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020 https://www. theguardian.com/technology/2019/mar/12/tim-berners-lee-on-30-years-of-theweb-if-we-dream-a-little-we-can-get-the-web-we-want
  • Jones, P. (1998). The technology is not the cultural form? Raymond William’s sociological critique of Marshall McLuhan. Canadian Journal of Communication ; Toronto, 23(4), 423–454.
  • Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling The Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • MacKenzie, D., & Wajcman, J. (1985). Introduction: The Social Shaping of Technology. MacKenzie, D., & J. Wajcman. (ed.). The Social Shaping of Technology: How the Refrigerator Got Its Hum içinde (s.2-26). Philadelphia: Open University Press.
  • Marx, L., & Smith, M. R. (1994). Introduction. M. R. Smith & L. Marx (ed.) Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism içinde (p.ix-xv).Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • McLuhan, M. (1988). The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of The Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • McLuhan, M. (1994) Understanding Media: Extensions of Man. Londra: MIT Press.
  • Sismondo, S. (2008). Science and technology studies and an engaged program.
  • Hackett, E. J., Amsterdamska, O., Lynch, M. &Wajcman, J. (ed.) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies: Third Edition içinde (s. 13–32). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Thomas, G., & Wyatt, S. (2000). Access is not the only problem: Using and controlling the Internet. Wyatt, S., Henwood, F., Miller, N., & Senjer, P. (ed.) Technology and In/equality: Questioning The Information Society içinde(s. 21-45). Londra: Routledge.
  • Web Foundation (2018). The Case #ForTheWeb. Washington DC: Web Foundation.
  • Williams, R., & Edge, D. (1996). The social shaping of technology. Research Policy, 25(6), 865-899.
  • Williams, R. (1964). A Structure of Insights. University of Toronto Quarterly 33(3), 338-340.
  • Williams, R. (1977). Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Williams, R. (2004). Television: Technology and Cultural Form. New York: Routledge.
  • Williams, R. (2012). Anahtar Sözcükler: Kültür ve Toplumun Sözvarlığı. Kılıç, S. (çev.). İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Williams, R. (2018). Kültür ve Teknoloji. Modernizmin Siyaseti içinde (s.147-173). Şannan, B. (çev.) İstanbul: Sel Yayıncılık.
  • Wyatt, S. (2008). Technological Determinism Is Dead; Long Live Technological Determinism. Hackett, E. J., Amsterdamska, O., Lynch, M. &Wajcman, J. (ed.) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies: Third Edition içinde (s. 165–180). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Web Sözleşmesi’nde Teknolojik Determinizmin İzleri

Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 5, 71 - 93, 29.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.829456

Öz

Teknolojik determinizmin teknolojik gelişme ve toplumsal değişim ilişkisini fazla basitleştiren bir düşünme tarzı olduğu yaygın bir eleştiridir. Bununla birlikte, sistemli, programlı ve çok boyutlu eleştirisine rağmen, bu düşünme şekli özellikle teknoloji politikası metinlerinde ve teknolojiyle ilgili kamusal tartışmada canlılığını korumaktadır. Bu çalışma teknolojinin toplumsal şekillenmesi başlığı altında toplanabilecek yaklaşımlardan hareketle interneti dönüştürmeyi hedefleyen bir teknoloji politikası önerisini ele almaktadır. 2019 yılında Web Vakfı tarafından Web Sözleşmesi başlığıyla ilan edilen çağrının çerçevesini teknolojik determinizm üzerine tartışmayı somutlaştıran bir örnek olarak incelemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ansal, H, Ekinci, M., & Kaşdoğan, D. (2018). Bilim, Teknoloji ve Toplum Çalışmaları’na bir giriş. Toplum ve Bilim, 144, 9-38.
  • Akrich, M. (1992). The De-Scription of Technical Objects. Bijker, W. E. & Law, J. (ed.) Shaping Technology/Building Society: Studies in Sociotechnical Change içinde (s.205-225) Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Berners-Lee, T. (6 Aralık 2018). How to Save The Web. New York Times. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/06/opinion/tim-berners-lee-saving-the-internet.html
  • Berners-Lee, T. (24 Kasım 2019). I Invented the World Wide Web. Here’s How We Can Fix It. New York Times. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/24/opinion/world-wide-web.html
  • Berners-Lee, T. (12 Mart 2019a). 30 Years On, What’s Next #ForTheWeb. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020, https://webfoundation.org/2019/03/web-birthday-30/
  • Bijker, W. E. & Pinch, T. J. (2012). The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts: Or How the Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Technology Might Benefit Each Other. Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P. & Pinch, T. (ed.) The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions In The Sociology and History of Technology içinde (s.11-45) Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Bimber, B. (1994). The Three Faces of Technological Determinism. M. R. Smith & L. Marx (ed.), Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism içinde (s. 79–100). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Brey, P. (1997). Philosophy of technology meets social constructivism: A shopper’s guide. Techné: Journal for the Society of Philosophy and Technology, n. 3–4.
  • Boczkowski, P., & Lievrouw, L. A. (2008). Bridging STS and Communication Studies: Scholarship on Media and Information Technologies. Hackett, E. J., Amsterdamska, O., Lynch, M. &Wajcman, J. (ed.) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies: Third Edition içinde (s. 951–977). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Contract For The Web. (Kasım 2019). Erişim 1 Ekim 2020, https://contractfortheweb.org/, (Pdf versiyonu) https://9nrane41lq4966uwmljcfggv-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/Contract-for-the-Web-3.pdf
  • Freedman, D. (2002). A ‘technological idiot’? Raymond Williams and communications technology. Information, Communication & Society, 5(3), 425-442.
  • Hern, A. (12 Mart 2019). Tim Berners-Lee on 30 years of the world wide web: ‘We can get the web we want’. The Guardian. Erişim 5 Ekim 2020 https://www. theguardian.com/technology/2019/mar/12/tim-berners-lee-on-30-years-of-theweb-if-we-dream-a-little-we-can-get-the-web-we-want
  • Jones, P. (1998). The technology is not the cultural form? Raymond William’s sociological critique of Marshall McLuhan. Canadian Journal of Communication ; Toronto, 23(4), 423–454.
  • Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling The Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • MacKenzie, D., & Wajcman, J. (1985). Introduction: The Social Shaping of Technology. MacKenzie, D., & J. Wajcman. (ed.). The Social Shaping of Technology: How the Refrigerator Got Its Hum içinde (s.2-26). Philadelphia: Open University Press.
  • Marx, L., & Smith, M. R. (1994). Introduction. M. R. Smith & L. Marx (ed.) Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism içinde (p.ix-xv).Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • McLuhan, M. (1988). The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of The Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • McLuhan, M. (1994) Understanding Media: Extensions of Man. Londra: MIT Press.
  • Sismondo, S. (2008). Science and technology studies and an engaged program.
  • Hackett, E. J., Amsterdamska, O., Lynch, M. &Wajcman, J. (ed.) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies: Third Edition içinde (s. 13–32). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Thomas, G., & Wyatt, S. (2000). Access is not the only problem: Using and controlling the Internet. Wyatt, S., Henwood, F., Miller, N., & Senjer, P. (ed.) Technology and In/equality: Questioning The Information Society içinde(s. 21-45). Londra: Routledge.
  • Web Foundation (2018). The Case #ForTheWeb. Washington DC: Web Foundation.
  • Williams, R., & Edge, D. (1996). The social shaping of technology. Research Policy, 25(6), 865-899.
  • Williams, R. (1964). A Structure of Insights. University of Toronto Quarterly 33(3), 338-340.
  • Williams, R. (1977). Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Williams, R. (2004). Television: Technology and Cultural Form. New York: Routledge.
  • Williams, R. (2012). Anahtar Sözcükler: Kültür ve Toplumun Sözvarlığı. Kılıç, S. (çev.). İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Williams, R. (2018). Kültür ve Teknoloji. Modernizmin Siyaseti içinde (s.147-173). Şannan, B. (çev.) İstanbul: Sel Yayıncılık.
  • Wyatt, S. (2008). Technological Determinism Is Dead; Long Live Technological Determinism. Hackett, E. J., Amsterdamska, O., Lynch, M. &Wajcman, J. (ed.) The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies: Third Edition içinde (s. 165–180). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Fırat BERKSUN Bu kişi benim
ÇUKUROVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5461-0686
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Kasım 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 5

Kaynak Göster

APA Berksun, F. (2020). Web Sözleşmesi’nde Teknolojik Determinizmin İzleri . Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi , İleti-ş-im Özel Sayı: 5 , 71-93 . DOI: 10.16878/gsuilet.829456

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