Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

VR Hikâyelerini Anlamlandırmak: Atraksiyonlar Sineması Bağlamında Bir Okuma

Yıl 2022, Sayı 36, 61 - 86, 27.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.1050445

Öz

VR, 2010’lardan itibaren genel kullanıma yayılan bir araç haline geldi. Artan satış rakamları ve özelinde duyurulan projelerle her geçen yıl kendine daha fazla yer edinmeye aday bir araç olarak karşımızda duruyor. Bu aracın nasıl hikâye anlatacağı ise ancak ortaya konan tasarımlar üzerinden tartışmaya açılabilecek kadar yeni. Bu çalışma benzer bir tartışma yürütme amacını taşıyor ve özgül bir dil geliştirme çabası içinde olan VR hikâyelerinin başarıyı klasik anlatı sinemasından uzaklaşarak bulabileceğini savunuyor. VR henüz tam anlamı ile kuralları ve analiz yöntemleri belirlenmiş bir araç değil. Bu belirsizlik, VR üzerine konuşurken kendinden önceki araçlara sırt yaslamayı gerektiriyor. Eldeki çalışma da benzer bir yöntem izleyerek atraksiyonlar sineması kavramından yararlanmakta. Çalışmanın, atraksiyonlar sinemasının betimlenmesi yoluyla bir literatür taramasına dayandığı söylenebilir. Literatür taramasından atraksiyonlar sinemasına dair özellikler elde edildi ve elde edilen özelliklerden yararlanılarak VR hikâyeleri tartışmaya açıldı. Çalışmada atraksiyonlar sinemasının etkileşimi öne çıkaran, izleyicisinin varlığına vurgu yapan ve onu şoke etme amacı taşıyan yönelimleri VR hikâyelerini anlamlandırmak için kullanıldı. Alanda sağladıkları başarılar göz önünde bulundurularak örneklem olarak tercih edilen The Key (2019) ve Goliath (2021) deneyimleri incelendi. VR hikâyelerinin klasik anlatı sinemasının temsil biçimlerinden uzaklaşılarak, simülasyon kelimesi ile anlamlandırılmaya çalışılmasının, aracın potansiyelini ortaya çıkarmada fayda sağlayacağı sonucuna varıldı.

Kaynakça

  • Allen, R. C. (1990). From exhibition to reception: reflections on the audience in film history. Screen, 31(4), 347–356. Erişim 2 Kasım 2021, doi:10.1093/screen/31.4.347
  • Aylett, R. ve Louchart, S. (2003). Towards a Narrative Theory of Virtual Reality. Virtual Reality 7, 2-9. Bucher, J. (2018). Storytelling for Virtual Reality. New York: Routledge.
  • Cratton, D. (2005). Audiences: Research Issues and Projects. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (60-64). London: Routledge.
  • Darley, A. (2000). Digital Visual Culture. London: Routledge.
  • Dooley, K. (2019). A question of proximity: exploring a new screen grammar for 360-degree cinematic virtual reality. Media Practice and Education, 21. Erişim 20 Haziran 2021, doi: 10.1080/25741136.2019.1641005
  • Dooley, K. (2021). Cinematic Virtual Reality. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Herbert, S. (2005). Dioramas and Panoramas. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (s. 269-270). London: Routledge.
  • Gaudreult, A. (2006). Lecturer. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (546-548). London: Routledge.
  • Gevinson, A. (2005). Vaudeville. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (968-973). London: Routledge.
  • Gigante, M.A. (1993). Virtual Reality: Definitions, History and Applications. R. A. Earnshaw ve M. A. Gigante, (Ed.), Virtual Reality Systems içinde (3-14). London: Academic Press.
  • Gödde, M., Gabler, F., Siegmund, D., ve Braun, A. (2018). Cinematic Narration in VR - Rethinking Film Conventions for 360 Degrees. HCI. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-91584-5_15
  • Grieveson, L. (2005). Audiences: Surveys and Debates. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (64-69). London: Routledge.
  • Griffiths, A. (2005). Museum Life Exhibits. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (657-658). London: Routledge.
  • Gunning, T. (1986). The Cinema of Attraction: Early Film, Its Spectator, and the Avant-Garde. Wide Angle 8(3-4), 63-70.
  • Gunning, T. (1990). The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator, and the Avant-Garde. T. Elsaesser ve A. Barker, (Ed.), Early Cinema: Space Frame Narrative içinde (56-62). London: BFI.
  • Gunning, T. (1995). An Aesthetic of Astonishment: Early Film and the (In)Credulous Spectator. A. Linda, (Ed.), Viewing Positions: Ways of Seeing Film içinde (114-133). New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
  • Gunning, T. (2005). Camera Movement. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (132-136). London: Routledge.
  • Gunning, T. (2006a). The Cinema of Attraction[s]: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (381-388). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Gunning, T. (2006b). Attractions: How They Came into the World. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (31-39). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Jerald, J. (2015). The VR Book Human Centered Design for Virtual Reality. New York: ACM Books.
  • Mannoni, L. (2005). Archeology of Cinema/Pre-cinema. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (46-51). London: Routledge.
  • T. Mazuryk ve M. Gervautz. Virtual Reality-History, Applications, Technology and Future. Austria: Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms, Vienna University of Technology, Şubat, 1996. Teknik Rapor TR-186-2-96-06. Erişim 18 Aralık 2021, https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Virtual-Reality-History-%2C-Applications-%2C-Technology-Mazuryk/6cebef400df6c387852b6c76570f226a86965104
  • Misek, R. (2020). ‘Real-time’ Virtual Reality and the Limits of Immersion. Screen 61(4), 615-624. Murphy, B. G. (Yönetmen-Senarist) ve Jones, A. (Yapımcı). (2021). Goliath: Playing With Reality [VR]. UK: Weareanagram.
  • Musser, C. (2006). Rethinking Early Cinema: Cinema of Attractions and Narrativity. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (389-416). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Nash, K. (2017). Virtual Reality Witness: Exploring the Ethics of Mediated Presence. Studies in Documentary Film, 12(2). Erişim 13 Temmuz 2021, doi: 10.1080/17503280.2017.1340796
  • Nelmes, J. (2012). Introduction to Film Studies. London: Routledge.
  • Rabinovitz, L. (2004). More than the Movies A History of Somatic Visual Culture through Hale’s Tours, Imax and Motion Simulation Rides. L. Rabinovitz ve A. Geil, (Ed.), Memory Bytes içinde (99-125). Durham ve London: Duke University Press.
  • Rabinovitz, L. (2005). Amusement Parks. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (31-32). London: Routledge.
  • Rabinovitz, L. (2006). From Hales’s Tours to Star Tours Virtual Voyages, Travel Ride Films, and the Delirium of the Hyper-real. J. Ruoff, (Ed.), Virtual Voyages Cinema and Travel içinde (42-60). Durham ve London: Duke University Press.
  • Robinson, D. (2005). Magic Lantern Shows. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (581-585). London: Routledge.
  • Slater, M. ve Wilbur, S. (1997). A Framework for Immersive Virtual Environments (FIVE): Speculations on the Role of Presence in Virtual Environments. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 6(6), 603-616.
  • Steuer, J. S. (1992). Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73–93.
  • Tomasovic, D. (2006). The Hoolywood Cobweb: New Laws of Attraction. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (309-320). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Tricart, C. (2018). Virtual Reality Film Making. New York: Routledge.
  • Tricart, C. (Yapımcı-Yönetmen) ve Bradbury, G. (Yapımcı). (2019). The Key [VR]. ABD: Lucid Dream.
  • Zhang, Y. (2020). Developing a Cinematic Language for Virtual Reality Filmmaking. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Griffith University.

Making Meaning out of VR Stories: A Reading within the Context of the Cinema of Attractions

Yıl 2022, Sayı 36, 61 - 86, 27.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.1050445

Öz

VR has been spread to general use since the 2010s with increasing sales values every year and the initiatives announced on its behalf; VR appears as a candidate striving to gain a place for itself. The way this tool tells a story is so novel that it can only be discussed through the designs that will be implemented. This study aims to engage in a similar discussion and contends that VR stories, which are to develop a specific language for themselves, can attain success by keeping their distance from classical narrative cinema. VR is not a tool that has designated rules and analysis methods. The lack of a precise frame of analysis requires one to lean back on former tools and methods. Following a similar method, this study utilizes the concept of the cinema of attractions. This study is based on a theoretical framework that is executed by describing the cinema of attractions. Portrayals of the cinema of attractions obtained from this theoretical framework are used to discuss VR stories. In this study, motivations of the cinema of attractions that highlight the interaction, emphasize the presence of the audience, and aim to shock them, are used to interpret VR stories. By assessing two VR experiences, namely The Key (2019) and Goliath (2021), that are favored as the object of analysis considering their success in the field, it is concluded that trying to comprehend VR stories as simulations and differentiating them from the classical narrative cinema and its strategies based on the representation could be beneficial in revealing the potential of VR.

Kaynakça

  • Allen, R. C. (1990). From exhibition to reception: reflections on the audience in film history. Screen, 31(4), 347–356. Erişim 2 Kasım 2021, doi:10.1093/screen/31.4.347
  • Aylett, R. ve Louchart, S. (2003). Towards a Narrative Theory of Virtual Reality. Virtual Reality 7, 2-9. Bucher, J. (2018). Storytelling for Virtual Reality. New York: Routledge.
  • Cratton, D. (2005). Audiences: Research Issues and Projects. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (60-64). London: Routledge.
  • Darley, A. (2000). Digital Visual Culture. London: Routledge.
  • Dooley, K. (2019). A question of proximity: exploring a new screen grammar for 360-degree cinematic virtual reality. Media Practice and Education, 21. Erişim 20 Haziran 2021, doi: 10.1080/25741136.2019.1641005
  • Dooley, K. (2021). Cinematic Virtual Reality. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Herbert, S. (2005). Dioramas and Panoramas. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (s. 269-270). London: Routledge.
  • Gaudreult, A. (2006). Lecturer. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (546-548). London: Routledge.
  • Gevinson, A. (2005). Vaudeville. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (968-973). London: Routledge.
  • Gigante, M.A. (1993). Virtual Reality: Definitions, History and Applications. R. A. Earnshaw ve M. A. Gigante, (Ed.), Virtual Reality Systems içinde (3-14). London: Academic Press.
  • Gödde, M., Gabler, F., Siegmund, D., ve Braun, A. (2018). Cinematic Narration in VR - Rethinking Film Conventions for 360 Degrees. HCI. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-91584-5_15
  • Grieveson, L. (2005). Audiences: Surveys and Debates. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (64-69). London: Routledge.
  • Griffiths, A. (2005). Museum Life Exhibits. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (657-658). London: Routledge.
  • Gunning, T. (1986). The Cinema of Attraction: Early Film, Its Spectator, and the Avant-Garde. Wide Angle 8(3-4), 63-70.
  • Gunning, T. (1990). The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator, and the Avant-Garde. T. Elsaesser ve A. Barker, (Ed.), Early Cinema: Space Frame Narrative içinde (56-62). London: BFI.
  • Gunning, T. (1995). An Aesthetic of Astonishment: Early Film and the (In)Credulous Spectator. A. Linda, (Ed.), Viewing Positions: Ways of Seeing Film içinde (114-133). New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
  • Gunning, T. (2005). Camera Movement. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (132-136). London: Routledge.
  • Gunning, T. (2006a). The Cinema of Attraction[s]: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (381-388). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Gunning, T. (2006b). Attractions: How They Came into the World. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (31-39). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Jerald, J. (2015). The VR Book Human Centered Design for Virtual Reality. New York: ACM Books.
  • Mannoni, L. (2005). Archeology of Cinema/Pre-cinema. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (46-51). London: Routledge.
  • T. Mazuryk ve M. Gervautz. Virtual Reality-History, Applications, Technology and Future. Austria: Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms, Vienna University of Technology, Şubat, 1996. Teknik Rapor TR-186-2-96-06. Erişim 18 Aralık 2021, https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Virtual-Reality-History-%2C-Applications-%2C-Technology-Mazuryk/6cebef400df6c387852b6c76570f226a86965104
  • Misek, R. (2020). ‘Real-time’ Virtual Reality and the Limits of Immersion. Screen 61(4), 615-624. Murphy, B. G. (Yönetmen-Senarist) ve Jones, A. (Yapımcı). (2021). Goliath: Playing With Reality [VR]. UK: Weareanagram.
  • Musser, C. (2006). Rethinking Early Cinema: Cinema of Attractions and Narrativity. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (389-416). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Nash, K. (2017). Virtual Reality Witness: Exploring the Ethics of Mediated Presence. Studies in Documentary Film, 12(2). Erişim 13 Temmuz 2021, doi: 10.1080/17503280.2017.1340796
  • Nelmes, J. (2012). Introduction to Film Studies. London: Routledge.
  • Rabinovitz, L. (2004). More than the Movies A History of Somatic Visual Culture through Hale’s Tours, Imax and Motion Simulation Rides. L. Rabinovitz ve A. Geil, (Ed.), Memory Bytes içinde (99-125). Durham ve London: Duke University Press.
  • Rabinovitz, L. (2005). Amusement Parks. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (31-32). London: Routledge.
  • Rabinovitz, L. (2006). From Hales’s Tours to Star Tours Virtual Voyages, Travel Ride Films, and the Delirium of the Hyper-real. J. Ruoff, (Ed.), Virtual Voyages Cinema and Travel içinde (42-60). Durham ve London: Duke University Press.
  • Robinson, D. (2005). Magic Lantern Shows. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (581-585). London: Routledge.
  • Slater, M. ve Wilbur, S. (1997). A Framework for Immersive Virtual Environments (FIVE): Speculations on the Role of Presence in Virtual Environments. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 6(6), 603-616.
  • Steuer, J. S. (1992). Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73–93.
  • Tomasovic, D. (2006). The Hoolywood Cobweb: New Laws of Attraction. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (309-320). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Tricart, C. (2018). Virtual Reality Film Making. New York: Routledge.
  • Tricart, C. (Yapımcı-Yönetmen) ve Bradbury, G. (Yapımcı). (2019). The Key [VR]. ABD: Lucid Dream.
  • Zhang, Y. (2020). Developing a Cinematic Language for Virtual Reality Filmmaking. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Griffith University.

RV Donner du sens aux histoires en réalité virtuelle: une lecture dans le contexte du cinéma d'attraction

Yıl 2022, Sayı 36, 61 - 86, 27.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.16878/gsuilet.1050445

Öz

La RV est devenue un outil d'usage général à partir des années 2010. Elle se présente devant nous comme un candidat à se faire place avec des chiffres de ventes qui augmentent d'année en année et des projets lancés spécifiquement dans ce contexte. La façon dont cet outil raconte une histoire est si nouvelle qu'elle ne peut être discutée qu'à travers les conceptions qui seront mises en oeuvre. Cette étude a pour objectif de mener une discussion similaire et soutient que les histoires de la RV, qui visent à développer un langage spécifique, ne peuvent réussir qu'en s'éloignant du cinéma narratif classique. La RV n'est pas encore un outil dont les règles et les méthodes d'analyse sont parfaitement déterminées. Par conséquent, cette ambiguïté des règles oblige donc à s’adosser aux outils précédents lorsque l'on parle sur la RV. La présente étude aussi poursuit une méthode similaire et tire parti du concept de cinéma d'attraction. On peut dire que l'étude porte sur une révision de la littérature à travers la description du cinéma d'attraction. Les définitions du cinéma d'attraction obtenues à partir de cette littérature ont été utilisées pour traiter les histoires de la RV. Dans l'étude, les motivations du cinéma d'attraction qui mettent l'accent sur l'interaction, soulignent la présence des spectateurs et visent à les choquer ont été utilisées pour donner un sens aux histoires de réalité virtuelle. En tenant compte du succès obtenu dans le domaine, les expériences de « The Key » (2020) et de « Goliath » (2021), ont été choisi comme exemple ; ont été analysé, et il a été conclu il a été conclu qu'essayer de donner un sens aux histoires de RV avec le mot simulation en s'éloignant des formes de représentation du cinéma narratif classique sera bénéfique pour révéler le potentiel du médium.

Kaynakça

  • Allen, R. C. (1990). From exhibition to reception: reflections on the audience in film history. Screen, 31(4), 347–356. Erişim 2 Kasım 2021, doi:10.1093/screen/31.4.347
  • Aylett, R. ve Louchart, S. (2003). Towards a Narrative Theory of Virtual Reality. Virtual Reality 7, 2-9. Bucher, J. (2018). Storytelling for Virtual Reality. New York: Routledge.
  • Cratton, D. (2005). Audiences: Research Issues and Projects. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (60-64). London: Routledge.
  • Darley, A. (2000). Digital Visual Culture. London: Routledge.
  • Dooley, K. (2019). A question of proximity: exploring a new screen grammar for 360-degree cinematic virtual reality. Media Practice and Education, 21. Erişim 20 Haziran 2021, doi: 10.1080/25741136.2019.1641005
  • Dooley, K. (2021). Cinematic Virtual Reality. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Herbert, S. (2005). Dioramas and Panoramas. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (s. 269-270). London: Routledge.
  • Gaudreult, A. (2006). Lecturer. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (546-548). London: Routledge.
  • Gevinson, A. (2005). Vaudeville. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (968-973). London: Routledge.
  • Gigante, M.A. (1993). Virtual Reality: Definitions, History and Applications. R. A. Earnshaw ve M. A. Gigante, (Ed.), Virtual Reality Systems içinde (3-14). London: Academic Press.
  • Gödde, M., Gabler, F., Siegmund, D., ve Braun, A. (2018). Cinematic Narration in VR - Rethinking Film Conventions for 360 Degrees. HCI. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-91584-5_15
  • Grieveson, L. (2005). Audiences: Surveys and Debates. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (64-69). London: Routledge.
  • Griffiths, A. (2005). Museum Life Exhibits. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (657-658). London: Routledge.
  • Gunning, T. (1986). The Cinema of Attraction: Early Film, Its Spectator, and the Avant-Garde. Wide Angle 8(3-4), 63-70.
  • Gunning, T. (1990). The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator, and the Avant-Garde. T. Elsaesser ve A. Barker, (Ed.), Early Cinema: Space Frame Narrative içinde (56-62). London: BFI.
  • Gunning, T. (1995). An Aesthetic of Astonishment: Early Film and the (In)Credulous Spectator. A. Linda, (Ed.), Viewing Positions: Ways of Seeing Film içinde (114-133). New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
  • Gunning, T. (2005). Camera Movement. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (132-136). London: Routledge.
  • Gunning, T. (2006a). The Cinema of Attraction[s]: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (381-388). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Gunning, T. (2006b). Attractions: How They Came into the World. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (31-39). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Jerald, J. (2015). The VR Book Human Centered Design for Virtual Reality. New York: ACM Books.
  • Mannoni, L. (2005). Archeology of Cinema/Pre-cinema. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (46-51). London: Routledge.
  • T. Mazuryk ve M. Gervautz. Virtual Reality-History, Applications, Technology and Future. Austria: Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms, Vienna University of Technology, Şubat, 1996. Teknik Rapor TR-186-2-96-06. Erişim 18 Aralık 2021, https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Virtual-Reality-History-%2C-Applications-%2C-Technology-Mazuryk/6cebef400df6c387852b6c76570f226a86965104
  • Misek, R. (2020). ‘Real-time’ Virtual Reality and the Limits of Immersion. Screen 61(4), 615-624. Murphy, B. G. (Yönetmen-Senarist) ve Jones, A. (Yapımcı). (2021). Goliath: Playing With Reality [VR]. UK: Weareanagram.
  • Musser, C. (2006). Rethinking Early Cinema: Cinema of Attractions and Narrativity. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (389-416). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Nash, K. (2017). Virtual Reality Witness: Exploring the Ethics of Mediated Presence. Studies in Documentary Film, 12(2). Erişim 13 Temmuz 2021, doi: 10.1080/17503280.2017.1340796
  • Nelmes, J. (2012). Introduction to Film Studies. London: Routledge.
  • Rabinovitz, L. (2004). More than the Movies A History of Somatic Visual Culture through Hale’s Tours, Imax and Motion Simulation Rides. L. Rabinovitz ve A. Geil, (Ed.), Memory Bytes içinde (99-125). Durham ve London: Duke University Press.
  • Rabinovitz, L. (2005). Amusement Parks. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (31-32). London: Routledge.
  • Rabinovitz, L. (2006). From Hales’s Tours to Star Tours Virtual Voyages, Travel Ride Films, and the Delirium of the Hyper-real. J. Ruoff, (Ed.), Virtual Voyages Cinema and Travel içinde (42-60). Durham ve London: Duke University Press.
  • Robinson, D. (2005). Magic Lantern Shows. R. Abel, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Cinema içinde (581-585). London: Routledge.
  • Slater, M. ve Wilbur, S. (1997). A Framework for Immersive Virtual Environments (FIVE): Speculations on the Role of Presence in Virtual Environments. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 6(6), 603-616.
  • Steuer, J. S. (1992). Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73–93.
  • Tomasovic, D. (2006). The Hoolywood Cobweb: New Laws of Attraction. W. Strauven, (Ed.), The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded içinde (309-320). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Tricart, C. (2018). Virtual Reality Film Making. New York: Routledge.
  • Tricart, C. (Yapımcı-Yönetmen) ve Bradbury, G. (Yapımcı). (2019). The Key [VR]. ABD: Lucid Dream.
  • Zhang, Y. (2020). Developing a Cinematic Language for Virtual Reality Filmmaking. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Griffith University.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

A. Hümeyra HÜSMEN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANKARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İLETİŞİM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-6582-1411
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt , Sayı 36

Kaynak Göster

APA Hüsmen, A. H. (2022). VR Hikâyelerini Anlamlandırmak: Atraksiyonlar Sineması Bağlamında Bir Okuma . Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi , (36) , 61-86 . DOI: 10.16878/gsuilet.1050445

Creative Commons Lisansı